Guide to Shop Low-voltage Cable Fault Finding in NOYAFA

Guide to Shop Low-voltage Cable Fault Finding in NOYAFA

2021-11-05
NOYAFA
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Low-voltage cable fault finding has greatly led to the improvement of SHENZHEN NOYAFA ELECTRONIC CO.,LIMITED's international standing. The product is known worldwide for its stylish design, uncanny workmanship and strong functionality. It creates a strong impression to the public that it is finely designed and of great quality and that it seamlessly incorporates aesthetics and usability in its design process.With NOYAFA's exceptional sales network and dedication to delivering innovative services, we are able to build strong and long-lasting relationships with customers. According to the sales data, our products are sold to different countries around the world. Our products continuously improve customer satisfaction during our brand expansion.An environment where awesome team members come together to do meaningful work has been created in our company. And the exceptional service and support of Best Cable Tester Supplier in China _ Noyafa are exactly started with these great team members, who engage in at least 2 hours of continuing education each month to continue to hone and improve their skills.
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List of Fault Finding and Detection Methods for Low Voltage Cables
List of Fault Finding and Detection Methods for Low Voltage Cables
Generally, the radiation path of high-voltage cable is easy to determine, but the high-voltage cable needs to be filled with sand bricks to be deeply buried. Its fault point is difficult to find. The radiation length of low-voltage cable is short, the radiation is random and the path is unclear. The following small series will introduce the fault finding and detection methods of low-voltage cables. You can simply understand. In order to solve the problem of low-voltage cable fault, researchers have developed and produced a cable fault tester based on the principle of impulse flash method. In order to find and detect the fault of low-voltage cable, first measure the distance with rangefinder. In fact, first judge whether the cable fault is high resistance, low resistance or grounding, and adopt different test methods according to this condition. If it is a ground fault, the low-voltage pulse method of the rangefinder is directly used to measure the distance; If it is a high resistance fault, the high-voltage impulse discharge method should be used to measure the distance. When using the high-voltage impulse discharge method to measure the distance, there are many auxiliary equipment: such as high-voltage pulse capacitor, discharge ball, current limiting resistance, inductive coil and signal sampler. The operation is troublesome, unsafe and dangerous. What is more cumbersome is to analyze the sampling waveform, The knowledge requirements of testers are relatively high. The second step is to find the path (this step can be omitted if the path is clear). When finding the path, add a signal (path signal generator) to the cable, and then the receiver receives the signal. Walk along the path with the signal once to determine the path of the cable. However, the range of this path is about 1-2 meters, which is not particularly accurate. The third step is to accurately locate according to the measured distance. It is based on the sound generated by ignition and discharge. When a loud sound is heard from the headset of the pointing instrument, that is, the location of the fault point is found. Due to listening to the sound, it takes a lot of time to find it due to the influence of environmental noise. Sometimes it can't be found until the evening. When it comes to cross-linked cables, it takes more time. Generally, the sound of internal discharge of cross-linked cables is very small. After almost no hearing, it is only measured. Therefore, this method can solve most of the power cable faults with oil impregnated paper as insulating material. For the cable faults with crosslinked material and polyethylene material as insulating material in recent years, the test effect is not ideal, because the sound generated by ignition and discharge is often very small (the cable skin is not damaged, but the internal discharge of the cable), In this case, only other methods can be used to solve it. We know that the insulation requirements of low-voltage cables are low, and the current is large during operation, which has obvious characteristics after failure. It is specifically classified as follows: class I fault: the whole cable is burned out or a phase is burned out. This fault causes the current relay on the distribution cabinet to act, and the cable is seriously damaged at the fault. Class II fault: each phase of the cable is short circuited. Similarly, this kind of fault causes the current relay and voltage relay on the distribution cabinet to act, and the cable is seriously damaged at the fault point (possibly caused by external force). Class III fault: the cable has only one phase open circuit, the current relay acts, and the damage at the fault point is light but obvious. It may be that the phase current is too large or caused by the cable quality. Four types of faults: internal short circuit of cable, no trace can be seen on the surface. Such faults are generally caused by cable quality, which is relatively rare.
How to Choose Fiber Optical Tester
How to Choose Fiber Optical Tester
Transmitter and receiver jack are fiber optic connectors that measure the power of the transmitter by connecting the test cable to the source and measuring power at the other end. The receiver is the one who disconnects the cable attached to the receiver jacks and measures the output with one meter.Other methods of testing fibre optic connections include starting the cable from the receiving cable and connecting it to an electricity meter. The standard loss test is an installed cable system that includes loss measurement to test the cable connection at each end. If you can, you can measure the loss from a connector connected to a reference cable, a loss fiber connection, or any other connector on the cable you want to test.This allows you to measure the two lost connectors at one end and the loss from cable to cable. The source counter duplicates the transmitter and receiver of the fiber-optic transmission connection, so that the measurements correlate with the actual system loss. The optical return loss (ORL) is expressed in decibels (dB) and affects how the light source or fiber reduces the data transmission speed.The optical time domain reflectionometer (OTDR) is used as a fiber optic cable tester to test optical losses. Using a high intensity laser light that emits a predefined pulse interval and is connected to the cable at one end, the cable is guided through an OTDR to analyze the backscattering of the light returning to the source location. A simple instrument that injects visible light is called a fiber tracer or visual fault locating mechanism.Calibrated optical light sources (OLs) can be used with an optical power meter (OPM) in conjunction with an OPM to quantify the insertion loss of the members during powering on. An important test of loss of input in an installed fiber optic cable system is performed with a light source power meter (LSPM), while an optical loss test kit (OLT) is required as an international standard to ensure that the system has a loss budget for acceptance and installation. The OLT, which uses both optical light sources and power meters, is considered the best fiber test practice to ensure the optical power budget and design specifications.Two devices are required to test the end-to-end performance of a fiber optic system: an OPM test and a light source. The testing of optical fibres requires special tools and instruments to select the appropriate components for the cable system to be tested. The source of the power meter, the optical loss test kit (OLT) and the appropriate device adapter are the cables and equipment you will test.Outside the fiber system, cables with an OTDR are tested for end-to-end losses to ensure that the installation is carried out correctly. The OTDR can also be used for troubleshooting, e.g. Interruptions in places due to excavations. Installers are often asked to use a loss test set up with a source current meter and OtDR to perform bidirectional tests, provide accurate cable documentation and certify their work.This video gives you a clear test procedure for fiber power meters and shows you how to test fiber adoption losses with two fiber optic test devices. Testing light sources of power meters is also known as the One-Jumper method as the most accurate way to measure the end-to-end signal loss in the fiber known as attenuation. If the light source operates at a wavelength of 1310 nm, for example, the optical power meter is set to 1310 for testing.The OLT Optical Loss Test Kit is a mainstay in the testing of fiber optic cables as it provides a precise method for the total loss of a connection as required by industry standards to ensure that the connection meets the loss requirements of a particular application. When fiber optic cables are in the facility, you need to test for continuity and end-to-end losses to resolve problems. Regardless of whether it is a long installation cable or an intermediate cable, you want to verify every single connection with an OTDR, because this is the only way to ensure that each one is good.Knowing how to select, install and maintain fiber optic cables is important to optimize system results. Combines fiber spectroscopic analysis systems to achieve optimal performance and results. Inline and flexible fiber-optic process analyzers and systems enable the user to place measuring probes at several points on one instrument, thereby reducing costs.Patented fiber constructions with emphasis on high-quality materials and spectroscopically guided waves are designed for high transmission efficiency and durability. The significant increase in the number of applications supporting data centres has resulted in more cable connections being established than ever before, and available space is a priority. Fusion splicing is used for FTTH applications to install connectors. Drop cable customers can use the new splice connector technology for fall cable fusion splicers.For example, expensive 10G certified Cat6A cables can be used instead of duplex fiber-optic cables, which require expensive transceivers. As a result, high-density solutions such as MTP / MPO connectors and multi-fiber cables, which require less wire space than single duplex cables, are becoming increasingly popular. While some manufacturers offer locally installed MTP and MPO connectors, many data center managers opt for Multi-Fiber Trunk Cable (MTP) or MPO (Factory Terminated End Fusion Splicing) or pre-terminated MTP (MPO) or Multi- Fiber LC Pigtails.They combine a fiber optic cable with a transceiver and eliminate the connectors. Fiber optic cables, also known as fiber optic cables, transmit data in light pulses through flexible pure fibers, glass or plastics. Thanks to their high data transmission speeds over long distances, they have become a popular choice for Ethernet networks and telecommunications applications.With thousands of connections, excessive slack leads to a lot of congestion, which restricts the proper airflow and cooling. An alternative is the purchase of multi-fiber pigtails that can be spliced into a multi-fiber cable. Sharp bends of 1.5 cm radius should be avoided, as they strain the fiber and cause optical losses.
Best Test Tools for Wire Testers
Best Test Tools for Wire Testers
Automation software tools are now making their way into the testing arena. And rightfully so. There is a lot of value in knowing that you can automate many important steps so that you can spend more time on the actual testing and less time on the manual process. What's more, it allows you to see what actually went wrong during your testing process - instead of just seeing if something happened at all.Wire testers are an important part of any testing workflow. They should be very accurate and precise when they do their job: They must send out a test email once per day, which is usually only 20-30 minutes long, check the email sent by the wire tester and report any issues there to your internal team or external client’s team via email.There are many automated software tools for wire testers. But none of them is suitable for a complete automation of the testing process.The solution to this issue is AI-based software. AI allows you to automate the testing process by writing simple scripts, which will run through all steps in the test process and check if they passed or failed. In turn, this is a significant improvement over manual test automation because you can focus on other aspects such as content creation and research, rather than on test automation itself.The Android wire tester helps the creator to perform quick and precise checks on Android applications.If you want to improve the quality of your development work, there are a number of tools which can help. They can help you by:The best Android wire tester can expose potential vulnerabilities in your application and help you to find them.Automation software and automation testing are controversial fields in the testing community. Until now, automated tests have been manual and they were done by a human tester.Nowadays, there are companies that offer artificial intelligence to automate their existing test procedures.Automated testing is becoming an important part of modern software testing.It's a common practice to test the same code over and over again to find potential bugs. There are many different tools available for automating this kind of tasks, but the most popular one is Automated Wire Tester (AWT) .We can automate the creation of reports from those tests. We create a report for every code change that we make. We can also create reports for typos, spelling mistakes and so on. This kind of automated reporting tool is helpful for our testers as it saves them time and helps them be more efficient in their work.When you read a new Android phone, it's important to know if it is worth buying.Automation software can help with wire testing by automating tasks and saving time. Automation software is intended to replace humans in certain technical roles, such as wire testers.Wire testers are human beings who work on the various parts and aspects of computer systems, and gather information about them. Automation software can be used when the system is not available or because human beings are not available for certain tasks (e.g., during infrastructure upgrades).A good Android app wire tester should not just test your apps, but should also save you time and money.A good Android Wire Tester is important for few reasons. First of all, it can provide key information about the device by analyzing the device's behavior. Secondly, it can provide a quick insight into your desired user experience which will help in improving your marketing strategies or sales goals.Automation can be used to enhance the quality of wire testers.Tracing the evolution of the role of automation software in the Wire Tester industry is a complex and fascinating topic. While some companies have invested heavily in automation software for wire testers, others have not. The reason has to do with two key reasons:#1 They are unwilling to invest too heavily in a new technology and they don't want to alienate their existing customers#2 They don't think that automation is necessary at all. There are simply no applications that need it at all at this point in time. One could argue that infrastructure is still lacking but I personally believe that this argument isn't valid anymore given today's state of the art technologies such as CNC machines and 3D printers, etc. Thus, today's
Model Prototype Exercise: Handheld Electric Screwdriver
Model Prototype Exercise: Handheld Electric Screwdriver
To practice designing 3D low-fidelity prototypes, I was tasked to prototype an OXO handheld electric screwdriver as a new opportunity to expand their business into new product lines.Designing for OXOs Brand IdentityBefore sketching out design ideas, I wanted to familiarize myself with the OXO brand, hoping that the form of my design will match with OXOs brand identity. OXO incorporates comfortable and easy to use tools, while also applying simple,universal design. When I was sketching, I wanted to prioritize comfort, which is why the designs for the screwdriver include a hand grip area for the user to comfortably hold the screwdriver. I also attempted to emulate the simple designs of OXO, because the interfaces to be as minimalist as possible.Additionally, the sketches addressed the product requirements of a fluid speed control, a automatic screw driver selection (shape and size), direction mechanism (screwing in vs. screwing out), and a progress digital readout (number of screws in and out).PrototypeI created a handheld electric screwdriver prototype that is 6 inches long. With rocks and Easter eggs filled with rice inside, the prototype weighs one pound, emulating the actual weight of the product. Shape & FormI wanted the shape and form of the screwdriver to be comfortable and intuitive for the user. The handle on the screwdriver is slightly curved to emulate the natural grip when holding an object around your hand. I also included tape around the area to represent different material that would be incorporated for comfort. Additionally the handle is suitable for left-handed users or right-handed users.FunctionalityThere are several functionalities that make the prototype, including speed control, screw driver shape/size selection, screw driver direction, and a digital readout component. The screwdriver will also have a rechargeable battery. Fluid Speed Control Mechanism: I incorporated a fluid speed control under tucked in the handle for easy access to change the speed of the screwdriver while holding it at the same time. The sensor will capture the pressure of the grip and change the speed accordingly. The white thumbtack shown in the left image above is located where ones index finger would be, a intuitive hold and position to be controlling the speed. Screw Driver Selection Mechanism (shape/size): For the screw driver shape and size selection, this screwdriver supports 2 different head changes (Phillips or flat) and 5 different sizes. This screw driver shape and size is presented on a touch screen, where the user can tap to select different heads and sizes. After the user will press set for the screwdriver to automatically change shape/size. This interface is above the gripped area to avoid accidental switches in screw driver. Additionally the interface faces the user when they hold onto the screwdriver, allowing for easy visibility of the current setting of the screwdriver.Screw Driver Direction Mechanism: The screw driver direction mechanism is located on the side of the screwdriver with a slider mechanism to change the direction based on if the user is screwing in versus out. Digital Readout Component: The digital readout component shows the number of screw in and out below the direction mechanism. The reset button allows for the user to set the count back to 0.Rechargeable Battery: The screwdriver is rechargeable and the battery is placed inside the bottom of the screwdriver. AnalysisAfter finalizing the prototype, my peer members were able to give critiques and I was able to conduct one in-depth user test on all functionality. Click on the link below to view a snippet of the user test.What went well?Many users enjoyed the fit and weight of the prototype, explaining that the curved form of the screwdriver fit well with their grip and how they would intuitively hold the screwdriver. Users found the reset button on the count of the number of screws in and out practical and functional even thought it wasnt a product requirement.The speed control was intuitive for everyone, knowing that the harder they pressed the faster the head would turn. All users found the button placed in a comfortable position where their index finger was. The placement of the rechargeable battery was intuitive for all users.What needed improvement?Many users were confused with the digital readout component that indicates the count of screws in and out. Manyusers were unable to initially understand what the numbers stood for. There was uncertainty with the set button, expressing confusion on the ordering of changing the heads of the screwdriver. If the set button should be pressed before or after selecting the shape and size.The placement of the reset button may get in the way when gripping the screwdriver, possibly causing unintentionally reset of the digital readout. Additionally there was no way to reset only one of the digital readout numbers. So if a user wanted to reset only the number of screws in, this would not be possible.Takeaways & Next StepsOverall based on this analysis, the most effective component of the prototype was the shape/form of the screwdriver as well as the fluid speed control mechanisms. Both were praised and intuitive for users. However, the least effective component was the interface of the digital readout component. By using icons paired with labels of in and out the digital readout component can be more clear on what is being represented. Additionally if the slider is placed between the label and the actual readout component, the label would be on the top, possibly better indicating what the digital readout is and what the in and out slider does.Next steps would be to improve on the interfaces of the digital readout component, since this was the least effective functionality. After improving on the new interface, the next step is to do another round of critique and user testing. RELATED QUESTION Which is the best natural face mask for dark and oily skin? Hello there,The Best Face Mask for Oily SkinOily skin can be a major cause of acne because the pores are constantly clogged. This is why you need a great mask to help get rid of excess oil in the pores and on the skin.This mask works hard at regulating oiliness, soothing acne flare-ups and soothing the skin. To make the mask, you will need:1 apricot1 tablespoon of natural yogurt1/2 teaspoon of cosmetic clayDirections:Blend the apricot in a food processor. Add the yogurt and the clay and mix it until it becomes a smooth paste.Apply the mixture to your face and allow it to dry for 20 minutes before rinsing it off with lukewarm water. We love DIY face masks because of their easy to make recipes and all-natural ingredients.Heres some best face mask for all skin problems. You can make it easily at your home.1. The Activated Charcoal Acne Face Mask2. The Avocado & Honey Acne Blasting Face Mask3. The Honey Acne Face Mask4. The Cucumber Acne Face Mask5. The Turmeric Face Mask for Acne6. The Aloe Vera Acne Face Mask7. The Cinnamon Acne Face Mask8. The Apple Cider Acne-Fighting Face MaskGet the face mask recipe and benefits here:22 Of The Best Natural Face MasksI hope this might be help you to get rid of oily skin.Thank You!
Dry Goods Sharing Brought by Power Cable Pathfinder Manufacturers
Dry Goods Sharing Brought by Power Cable Pathfinder Manufacturers
It is generally believed that wear and aging caused by daily time accumulation and sudden faults caused by external factors will affect the use of cables. Both of them will cause fault trip, interrupt power supply operation, and cause power grid paralysis in serious cases. Among these factors, the time accumulation factor can be controlled artificially, resulting in a very small probability of failure, while the external environmental meteorological factors can not be controlled, resulting in a very high probability of failure and great destructive power. Below, the manufacturer of power cable Pathfinder summarizes this problem. 1、 Lightning strike power cable Pathfinder manufacturers believe that lightning weather is common in rainy season and has great randomness. A large number of transmission lines erected in the field have the characteristics of large tower span and large height difference, which makes the lightning resistance level of the line relatively poor and vulnerable to lightning. In harsh terrain, there are many single circuit lines, and there is no shielding and shunt protection provided by parallel lines, which increases the incidence of lightning accidents. Lightning trip accounts for the largest proportion of transmission line faults, and the lower the voltage level, the higher the probability of lightning fault. In order to reduce the probability of lightning accidents on transmission lines, it is necessary to prevent flashover, arc building, direct strike and line interruption. The following protective measures shall be taken: 1. Erect lightning conductor. 2. Add coupling ground wire. 3. Reduce the impact grounding resistance of iron tower. 4. Neutral point indirect grounding system is adopted. 5. Strengthen the line insulation level. 6. Automatic reclosing shall be installed. 7. Install tubular lightning arrester. 2、 Typhoon weather is accompanied by strong wind and rainstorm, and accidents such as conductor galloping, wind deviation, line breaking and tower falling will occur on the transmission line. Broken lines and inverted towers are prone to North-South disconnection. With the increase of the designed wind speed of the power system on the transmission line, the probability of line breaking and tower falling accidents decreases, but the probability of accidents caused by violent swing of conductors, wind bias discharge and damage of floating objects is high. For the vibration lines with low wind speed, most of the lines can be controlled by installing anti vibration devices. In case of strong wind speed, the following measures can be taken: 1. Add anti vibration hammer and heavy hammer device to increase the vertical load carrying capacity of the transmission line and reduce the left and right swing amplitude of the line. 2. Install damping wires and armour rods, increase the number of split wires, strengthen conductors, and ensure the safe distance between conductors and iron tower. 3. The suspension mode of V-shaped insulator string is adopted to enhance the insulator resistance to lateral drift with the wind and reduce the wind deflection swing angle of insulator string. 4. When designing tower type and erecting transmission line, it is considered to leave a large distance between conductors, move down the hanging point, or lengthen and widen the cross arm. 3、 Mountain fire is caused by high temperature, human factors and other factors, which makes the air in the state of high temperature and low humidity for a long time. It is located in the mountainous terrain, between the transmission line crossing forest vegetation and the earth or between phase lines. Due to the rise of thermal dissociation of air particles, the increase of charged charge and the acceleration of particle movement The occurrence of line flashover tripping due to the formation of conductive channel accounts for 90%%uff0c of mountain fire tripping, which is the main cause of mountain fire tripping. It also includes the burning of line insulation at high temperature and the discharge of conductor to tower. In view of the mountain fire phenomenon, we should start with the fire prevention measures to reduce the incidence of mountain fire: 1. Control the height, quantity and type of trees near the tower base. 2. Emergency response measures shall be established, and safety passages with sufficient length and width shall be reserved. 3. The line protection system is reliable and sensitive. 4. Establish a real-time monitoring system and improve the monitoring effect; ⑤ Increase line inspection and eliminate hidden dangers by season, time period and weather conditions.
Location Method of High Resistance Damage in Power Cable Line
Location Method of High Resistance Damage in Power Cable Line
In order to preliminarily determine the high resistance damage in power cable lines, the combination method of high voltage reflection method is usually used: pulse arc method and vibration discharge method. In this paper, we will consider the main ideas embedded in these methods and how they work. In addition, we will discuss the equipment to implement these two methods. 1、 Pulse arc method (ARM) is used to determine high resistance damage. The main idea of pulse arc method is to use a special high-voltage pulse generator. For example, in the arc cable generator of power cable, oil first creates conditions for the generation of high resistance defects and causes short-term arc (breakdown). According to the magnitude of the leakage current and the power of the current source, use one of two ways for the generator to act on the cable line: 1. Smoothly charge KL's own capacity (cable) from the generator current source until breakdown occurs. This method can be used if the leakage is so small that the power supply of the high voltage pulse generator is sufficient to charge before breakdown. For defects with serious leakage, this method is not applicable. 2. Charge the built-in capacitor of the generator to the required voltage (not exceeding the test standard), and then discharge the cable instantaneously. In this case, the high-voltage pulse propagates in the cable, which will lead to failure when it reaches the location of the defect. This method can be used to search for defects on cable lines with serious leakage. In both cases, the use of inductors integrated in the generator will delay the arc combustion time. The current pulse from the breakdown (propagating from the defect to the input of the generator) triggers a synchronous circuit that starts the low-voltage sounding through the cable fault locator (also known as the cable fault tester). The physical characteristics of the arc have low resistance, and the detection pulse of the cable fault locator is also reflected from medium and low impedance defects (short circuit). Advantages of pulsed arc method the pulsed arc method (ARM) for determining high resistance damage has several advantages. This is a non-destructive method, because unlike combustion, the impact of high voltage on the cable is short. Unlike combustion, this method will not reduce the cable parameters as a whole, and will not cause new damage where the insulation resistance is still within the normal range. Arm is actually a high-precision method, because the measurement is actually carried out by pulse method. 2、 The vibration discharge method (ice / attenuation) should deal with high resistance damage. The vibration discharge method is used to find damage on a long cable line, or when the pulse damping of the underground cable fault locator is too large for some reason to apply the pulse arc method. The vibratory discharge method allows you to locate most faults that can be detected using the pulsed arc method, but usually reduces accuracy. It should be noted here that the function of the cable is not displayed when operating by the vibration discharge method. Current oscillation discharge method (current fluctuation method, ice) when the wave current method is used, the oscillation circuit is formed by the system: capacitor on the source side - Cable - low transition resistance (or arc) at the defective part. When the method of vibration discharge through current is used, according to the leakage current value and the power of the current source, here, as with the pulse arc method, one of the two methods of exposing the cable to the generator is used: 1. Smoothly charge the CL capacitor from the generator current source until breakdown occurs. This method can be used if the leakage is so small that the power of the current source is sufficient to charge before breakdown. For defects with serious leakage, this method is not applicable. 2. Charge the built-in capacitor of the generator to the required voltage (not exceeding the test standard), and then discharge the cable instantaneously. In this case, the high-voltage pulse propagates in the and reaches the defective part, resulting in breakdown or large discharge current. This method can be used to search for serious defects. The discharge current pulse returned to the source will charge its capacitor, which in turn. The wave reaching the defect may cause a discharge in it again (in this case, its polarity will change), or if a second discharge does not occur, it will reflect with the same polarity and repeat the process again until all the energy of the initial pulse disappears. These vibrations are displayed on the screen of the cable fault locator connected to the cable through the inductive sensor.
Precautions for Optical Fiber Test and Installation
Precautions for Optical Fiber Test and Installation
Although optical brazing can provide a large bandwidth, its performance will be compromised if it is not deployed properly. Therefore, for enterprises with optical brazing needs, the author has the following suggestions.1、 Try to avoid macro and micro musicOptical brazing, like ordinary network cables, will also have signal degradation. Network cable is mainly caused by signal decay due to distance, while for optical fiber, it is mainly caused by improper installation. For example, if the optical fiber is stretched or bent too much, it may cause the fiber core to crack and have small cracks. A direct consequence of this is that light will scatter, resulting in signal attenuation. In addition, if the bending angle of the optical fiber is too large, the incident angle of the optical fiber contacting the core cladding interface will be changed. This makes the incident angle less than the critical angle of the total reflection angle. Note that at the bend, some optical signals cannot be reflected, but refracted into the covering layer and lost directly. Reflection, refraction, these professional terms may be difficult for readers to understand. In short, when deploying optical fiber, network administrators need to avoid the following two situations as far as possible.One is Hongqu. Macro area generally refers to the bending visible to the naked eye. Gently pull the optical fiber, you can see that the optical fiber is broken and sunk, as if it had been pressed by a heavy object. When the administrator accidentally bends the optical fiber, part of the light exceeds the critical angle, resulting in the light leaking out of the fiber core and into the covering layer. In general, once the light enters the cladding, it is difficult to return to the core again (even if it can, it is abandoned because the cost is too high). Usually, it will leak out directly through the buffer layer.The second is micro music. Micro bending and macro bending have the same reasons, which will cause the optical signal to exceed the critical angle and leak out of the fiber core. However, the external performance is different. The existence of Hongqu can generally be judged by the naked eye. In case of micro curvature, the amplitude of occurrence is very small, which is difficult to be found by the naked eye. In other words, general bending (such as rounding the optical fiber) does not necessarily lead to micro bending. Only bending under certain conditions can lead to micro bending.So in practice, how to avoid these two situations? A relatively simple method is not to press heavy objects on the optical fiber. Because of the long-term backlog of heavy objects, it is easy to cause optical fiber deformation, macro bending phenomenon and affect the transmission of optical fiber signal. In addition, when deploying optical fiber network, it is best to carefully observe the appearance of optical fiber. Because if macro music occurs, the appearance is obvious, which can be seen directly from the appearance (obvious backlog traces). If so, it's best to abandon this and optical fiber.Secondly, because the micro curvature is difficult to be observed by the naked eye, the help of the instrument may be needed at this time. Connect a test instrument at both ends of the optical fiber, and then you can check the attenuation degree of the optical fiber. If it is within the range allowed by the user, there is no problem if a little macro or micro music occurs. However, if its performance has been seriously affected, the optical fiber needs to be replaced.2、 Pay attention to whether there is an inner tube when purchasing optical fiberThe attenuation of optical fiber signal is largely related to its installation. Improper installation may lead to micro bending or macro bending. In order to avoid this situation as much as possible, many optical fiber manufacturers will add a layer of "inner tube" material to the optical fiber. The utility model relates to a material for stretching pipes, which can effectively avoid excessive bending of optical fibers.In terms of hardness, the inner tube is much harder than the optical fiber, so it is not easy to be excessively bent. Therefore, the optical fiber protected by the inner tube is usually not easy to bend. According to the laboratory test results, it can be found that the inner tube can indeed protect the optical fiber. It can not only improve the tensile amplitude of the optical fiber, but also ensure that the bending optical fiber is not too large. Of course, due to the addition of an inner tube, the cost will be much higher. Therefore, not every brand of optical fiber will do so. Enterprises need to pay attention to this problem when purchasing optical fiber.3、 Pay attention to the smoothness of both ends during installationThe process of installing optical fiber is much more complex than that of installing ordinary network cable. When installing the optical fiber, both ends of the optical fiber need to be cut. In addition, the smoothness of both ends must be ensured (usually, the smoothness of the end can be ensured by polishing and other means). If the terminal is not smooth, it will lead to signal attenuation. If the network administrator has the conditions, it is better to use a microscope or built-in amplification instrument to detect the smoothness of the optical fiber end to judge its smoothness. In short, it is necessary to ensure that both ends of the optical fiber are properly polished and shaped.After ensuring that both ends are smooth, carefully install the joints at both ends. The installation of this joint is also a technical work. Because if there is an error in the installation of the interface, such as improper splicing, or splicing two optical fibers with inconsistent dimensions together, the intensity of the optical signal will be reduced to a great extent. In general, optical fibers with different sizes are not recommended.After the optical fiber connector is connected, certain protective measures need to be taken. This is mainly because this part is the most likely place to cause signal leakage. If the end is dusty and unclean, it will cause great attenuation when the light reaches the receiver. Make sure that the connectors and fiber ends are clean if necessary. If necessary, it is also necessary to cover the end of the optical fiber with a protective film to prevent damage. Moreover, when connecting the optical fiber to the interface of the router or switch, it needs to be cleaned again. The cleaning method is relatively simple. Generally, you only need to wipe it with alcohol free lens paper. In order to avoid dust pollution, if there is an optical fiber interface on network equipment such as switches and routers, certain protective measures need to be taken when they are not used at ordinary times. If the port is covered, prevent dust from entering. When it is reused, it needs to be cleaned again. The cleaning method is the same as that of cleaning the joint. You only need to wipe it with special paper.4、 After installation, test and calculate the light lossEven if the deployment method is the most appropriate or the optical fiber is the best, it is still difficult to avoid the loss of optical signal in the end, but the degree of loss is different. If the loss degree of the optical signal is within the range that the user can tolerate, then it can. On the contrary, after the maximum limit of this user has been exceeded, it is necessary to analyze the causes and take corresponding measures.In practice, the unit of optical signal loss is measured by decibels (note that this is not a unit of sound). This unit indicates what percentage of the energy emitted by the transmitter is received by the receiver. Generally, you need to test after the first installation and confirm with the user whether you can accept this value. Note that this value needs to be recorded. This value needs to be used for reference in future maintenance. If it is found that the transmission performance of network data decreases in the process of use in the future. At this point, the administrator needs to retest it. If the test value is found to be the same as the original value, it means that there is no problem with the optical fiber, which is caused by the enterprise's own network. For example, it may be caused by the increase of data volume or the change of network architecture. It is necessary to optimize the enterprise's network. On the contrary, if the optical energy loss is found to be greater than the original, the problem that it may be an optical fiber or an optical fiber receiver transmitter must be considered. Check whether the protective layer of the optical fiber is damaged or whether there is a lot of dust on the interface, etc. It can be seen that the test of this optical fiber is very important. During the first test, the data obtained must be recorded in detail as the basis for future optical fiber maintenance and network optimization.
Does a Network Cable Tester Detect Damage to the Cable?
Does a Network Cable Tester Detect Damage to the Cable?
They are really just meant to see if it's cut or not. Network switches will keep statistics on lines which may indicate some type of deterioration1. how to recover a lost security key using a lexsys router?If you have a machine connected by cable you are in luck. If not, connect your laptop via Ethernet cable to one of the numbered ports on the back of the router. Using the browser of your choice put in 192.168.1.1 in the address field. Unless you have changed it, that is the address of the linksys router. This will bring up a web page from the router. If it asks for an ID/password if you have changed it you will need it to go further. If you have not changed it then the ID is left blank and the password is "admin". Go to Wireless tab, select Security tab and the encryption code (password) will pop up. If is is all stars click on the box to show letters. Now, if you have just forgotten all of the stuff that has changed you will need to reset the router. There is a little button on the back, recessed a little. With the power connected, using a ballpoint pen tip, push in the button and hold it for 30 seconds. While still holding the button, remove the power plug from the back of the router and keep the button pushed in for another 30 seconds. Then, with the button still pushed in plug the power back in, keeping the button depressed for a last 30 seconds. Then release the button. The router will restart with factory settings. After the reset the router SSID will be "linksys" and it will have no security (password) required. You need to access the router now and set it up from scratch.2. cable tv is too expensive?great place to go when bored - work. TV does not pay u so turn it off. people who use less TV earn more $$$. if u must, google TV antennas for one that will work in your areas. rabbit ears do not work in many places.3. 15 Pin Serial Cable?A couple of our earlier generation terminal concentrator units ran on an RS-422 loop that used DB-15 connectors and cabling4. Broken CB Antenna CABLE ?typically, it is best to replace the cable. if that's not a viable option, then go to a CB shop or Radio Shack and get 2 PL259's that are the correct size for your coax, and a PL258 double female connector. repair the 2 coax ends via the instructions, and then connect to the PL258 use black tape (preferably stretch & seal tape) to completely cover the connectors and at least 2" past both connectors up on the coax, to keep water out re-check SWRs5. What Is The Main difference Between Cat 5e Ethernet cable and Cat 6 Cable Ethernet Cable?Let's say you want to play Warcraft with your buddies. A high-speed internet is what you would require for an uninterrupted gaming experience. You can either go for a Wi-Fi networking or a wired network. No doubt, Wi-Fi provides a convenient way to connect the computers at home without any unnecessary hassle of wires. But then, it is also slow and unreliable at times. A wired network, on the contrary, will enable a high-speed network for online gaming, video streaming, file sharing, and much more. Before opting for a completely wired network for your home, you should know about the different cables available in the market. Knowing which Ethernet cable to use can enhance your gaming experience. There are different kinds of network cords that can solve your purpose. The most popular ones include Cat5, Cat5e Cable and Cat 6 Cable. Each of them has its own specific qualities. However, you must select the one that best fits your purpose. All of these cables might look similar from outside but they are internally different. If you look at the text printed on the cable, you'll get to know what type it is. Here is a list of what all you need to know to select the perfect cable for your home network. Cat5: "Old and Slow"Cat5 is oldest of all the network cables. It is made to handle 10/100 Mbps speed, which means it is comparatively slow and less responsive. These cables are old and obsolete. You probably won't find them at a store but if you have an old modem, you might search for one. Cat5e: "Improved and Faster"It is the most used network cable. Cat5e Cable is better at keeping signals in different circuits or channels from interfering with each other. A much-improved Cat5e is made to handle 1000Mb speed, so it is faster than Cat 5 and provides a better networking experience. It is, currently, the most commonly used cable in new installations.Cat6: "Even Faster"Next to Cat5e is a Cat6 cable. It is way faster and much improved. This networking cord is made to support 10 Gigabit speed of Ethernet, which is huge. You probably don't have this high-speed network at your home. This cable would not make much of a difference with the speeds that we get at present. But if you are going for a new one, you might as well go for Cat6 as it is the best of the lot. What Is The Main difference Between Cat 5e Ethernet cable and Cat 6 Cable Ethernet Cable?
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