Guide to Shop Use Wire and Cable Fault Tester in NOYAFA

Guide to Shop Use Wire and Cable Fault Tester in NOYAFA

2021-11-05
NOYAFA
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In SHENZHEN NOYAFA ELECTRONIC CO.,LIMITED, Use wire and cable fault tester is recognized as an iconic product. This product is designed by our professionals. They closely follow the trend of the times and keep improving themselves. Thanks to that, the product designed by those professionals has a unique look that will never go out of style. Its raw materials are all from the leading suppliers in the market, endowing it with the performance of stability and long service life.Market research is a very important piece of the market expansion process for our NOYAFA brand. We spare no efforts to know about our potential customer base and our competition, which help us accurately identify our niche in this new market and to decide whether or not we should focus on this potential market. This process has made our international market expansion more smoothly.At Best Cable Tester Supplier in China _ Noyafa, in addition to standardized services, we can also provide custom-made Use wire and cable fault tester to customers' specific needs and requirements and we always try to accommodate their schedules and time plans.
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How to Use the Wire and Cable Fault Tester to Quickly Find the Fault Point
How to Use the Wire and Cable Fault Tester to Quickly Find the Fault Point
In case of cable fault, power workers usually need to use cable fault tester to determine the location of fault point, so as to facilitate power workers to maintain cables. What problems should be paid attention to when using wire and cable fault tester to test fault points? Xiaobian summarized the following points on this issue. I hope you can solve your doubts and answer questions. Interested friends can have a look. 1. The gap between the discharge balls should not be increased. After using the cable fault comprehensive tester to roughly test the position of the fault point, if the gap between the discharge balls is adjusted too large, the impulse voltage will become higher, the high-voltage impulse time is too long, the fault point will be short circuited, the fault point will not discharge, and the fault point is difficult to find. Therefore, it should be noted that the gap between the discharge balls should not be adjusted too large. 2. In special cases, two fault testers can be used. If the soil layer is too thick, the surrounding environment has great interference, or the cable itself is damaged, resulting in weak vibration signal transmitted to the ground when the fault point is discharged, which makes it difficult to locate the fault point, two wire and cable fault testers can be used by taking advantage of the simultaneous occurrence of vibration wave and electromagnetic wave generated during fault click discharge. Use the probe and the probe to work at the fixed point at the same time. When two instruments hear a bang at the same time, and then find the sound point, we can accurately find the location of the fault point. 3. How to find the loudest point at the fixed point: after hearing the regular discharge sound, move the tester back and forth along the direction of the cable to find the position with large discharge sound. At this time, pay attention to reducing the output volume of the tester, and then slowly find the place with a loud sound. 4. Pay attention to replacing the battery. When the instrument is not in use, the power supply needs to be turned off in time. If the battery is low, the sensitivity of the instrument during test may be reduced, resulting in increased noise. Consider changing the battery at this time. 5. Check the wiring. If the shielding layer of the input line of the instrument is in poor contact, resulting in the sound of the radio station from the headset, you can check whether the wiring is correct. Precautions for cable laying: I. when using drainage pipes, the following provisions shall be observed: 1. The number of pipe holes shall be properly reserved according to the development needs. 2. For cables with large difference in conductor working temperature, different pipe banks should be set at appropriate spacing. C. the covering thickness of pipe top soil shall not be less than 0.5m. 3. The pipeline shall be placed on the leveled and compacted soil layer, and sufficient cushion blocks shall be provided to keep it continuous and straight; The longitudinal drainage gradient shall not be less than 0.2%. II. Requirements for cable wells. 1. Cable wells shall be set in the following parts of long cable ducts: (1) the limited distance of traction force between cables. (2) Cable branches and joints. (3) The direction of the pipeline changes greatly, or the cable goes directly underground through the drainage pipe. (4) The slope of the pipeline is large, and the fixation must be strengthened to prevent the cable from sliding. 2. Cable trench in power distribution room cable trench in power distribution room is generally used for incoming and outgoing lines of power distribution equipment, which is basically divided into under cabinet trench and double line trench. The cable trench wall is mu10 autoclaved lime brick, M5 cement sand, 1:2 cement mortar plastering of the trench wall, C20 concrete for coping and foundation, and channel steel shall be embedded under the equipment.
What Is the Difference Between a Live Cable Identifier and an Uncharged One
What Is the Difference Between a Live Cable Identifier and an Uncharged One
Cable identification instrument can accurately find out the characteristics of cables in a bundle of cables, which is a common equipment. Its wide range of applications can be used not only in cable fault handling, but also in cable erection or migration. There are two kinds of cable identification instrument, one is live cable identification instrument, and the other is not live. So what's the difference between them? Next, let's have a look. How to find a specific cable in a bundle of cables? How to accurately identify cables? Many power maintenance companies most commonly use the live cable identification instrument in power cable erection, migration, maintenance and fault treatment. However, in the face of complex cable and environmental differences, it has become very difficult to identify the running cable. What is the difference between a live cable identifier and a dead cable Identifier? How to distinguish quickly? 1. Working principle of the cable identification instrument the main working principle of the live cable identification instrument is to transmit the phase coded signal with an average value of 0 on the transmitting caliper, receive the single chip microcomputer in the caliper, filter the received signal through hardware and software, and then carry out phase identification. When the receiving clamp clamps the cable according to the current direction, the identified cable ammeter deviates to the right, Accompanied by audible and visual indication. The current direction of other cables is opposite to that of the identified cable, and the ammeter pointer deviates to the left. The working principle of the dead cable identification instrument is to add a special signal to the identified cable, which should be received by a special receiver. The periodic unipolar voltage pulse is fed into the cable to be identified. The direction of the pulse current fed into the cable can be used as an obvious identification standard, and the outgoing current only passes through this cable. 2. Basic parameters of the cable identifier: insert the red and black wiring plugs of the transmitting caliper a into the two red and black wiring posts corresponding to the transmitting source, and clamp the transmitting caliper a on the identified cable. The arrow on the transmitting caliper a points to the cable terminal. On the identified cable two meters away from the transmitting caliper, clamp the receiving caliper B to the cable, and the arrow on the caliper must point to the cable terminal. Then check the current direction and test connection direction. At the identification point, identify each cable with receiving caliper B. During identification, the arrow on the receiving caliper must always point to the terminal direction of the cable, and the cable shall be clamped one by one. On the identified cable, the current meter pointer of the receiver must deflect to the right, and the audible and visual alarm prompts 3. Precautions for the use of the cable identification instrument (1) if the operating cable has voltage and no load, there will be no current flowing on the cable. At this time, the magnetic field cannot be detected. It is considered to be an uncharged cable, which is very easy to misjudge. (2) If the cable is not running, but if this cable is parallel to other running cables, there will be induced current and magnetic field. At this time, the instrument will also have indication, and misjudgment will occur. (3) If there are multiple cables in the cable trench, these multiple cables will generate a magnetic field. At this time, there will be a magnetic field generated by 50Hz current in the whole area. At this time, there will be a magnetic field in the whole area, which makes the discrimination impossible. It is easy to misjudge.
How to Choose Fiber Optical Tester
How to Choose Fiber Optical Tester
Transmitter and receiver jack are fiber optic connectors that measure the power of the transmitter by connecting the test cable to the source and measuring power at the other end. The receiver is the one who disconnects the cable attached to the receiver jacks and measures the output with one meter.Other methods of testing fibre optic connections include starting the cable from the receiving cable and connecting it to an electricity meter. The standard loss test is an installed cable system that includes loss measurement to test the cable connection at each end. If you can, you can measure the loss from a connector connected to a reference cable, a loss fiber connection, or any other connector on the cable you want to test.This allows you to measure the two lost connectors at one end and the loss from cable to cable. The source counter duplicates the transmitter and receiver of the fiber-optic transmission connection, so that the measurements correlate with the actual system loss. The optical return loss (ORL) is expressed in decibels (dB) and affects how the light source or fiber reduces the data transmission speed.The optical time domain reflectionometer (OTDR) is used as a fiber optic cable tester to test optical losses. Using a high intensity laser light that emits a predefined pulse interval and is connected to the cable at one end, the cable is guided through an OTDR to analyze the backscattering of the light returning to the source location. A simple instrument that injects visible light is called a fiber tracer or visual fault locating mechanism.Calibrated optical light sources (OLs) can be used with an optical power meter (OPM) in conjunction with an OPM to quantify the insertion loss of the members during powering on. An important test of loss of input in an installed fiber optic cable system is performed with a light source power meter (LSPM), while an optical loss test kit (OLT) is required as an international standard to ensure that the system has a loss budget for acceptance and installation. The OLT, which uses both optical light sources and power meters, is considered the best fiber test practice to ensure the optical power budget and design specifications.Two devices are required to test the end-to-end performance of a fiber optic system: an OPM test and a light source. The testing of optical fibres requires special tools and instruments to select the appropriate components for the cable system to be tested. The source of the power meter, the optical loss test kit (OLT) and the appropriate device adapter are the cables and equipment you will test.Outside the fiber system, cables with an OTDR are tested for end-to-end losses to ensure that the installation is carried out correctly. The OTDR can also be used for troubleshooting, e.g. Interruptions in places due to excavations. Installers are often asked to use a loss test set up with a source current meter and OtDR to perform bidirectional tests, provide accurate cable documentation and certify their work.This video gives you a clear test procedure for fiber power meters and shows you how to test fiber adoption losses with two fiber optic test devices. Testing light sources of power meters is also known as the One-Jumper method as the most accurate way to measure the end-to-end signal loss in the fiber known as attenuation. If the light source operates at a wavelength of 1310 nm, for example, the optical power meter is set to 1310 for testing.The OLT Optical Loss Test Kit is a mainstay in the testing of fiber optic cables as it provides a precise method for the total loss of a connection as required by industry standards to ensure that the connection meets the loss requirements of a particular application. When fiber optic cables are in the facility, you need to test for continuity and end-to-end losses to resolve problems. Regardless of whether it is a long installation cable or an intermediate cable, you want to verify every single connection with an OTDR, because this is the only way to ensure that each one is good.Knowing how to select, install and maintain fiber optic cables is important to optimize system results. Combines fiber spectroscopic analysis systems to achieve optimal performance and results. Inline and flexible fiber-optic process analyzers and systems enable the user to place measuring probes at several points on one instrument, thereby reducing costs.Patented fiber constructions with emphasis on high-quality materials and spectroscopically guided waves are designed for high transmission efficiency and durability. The significant increase in the number of applications supporting data centres has resulted in more cable connections being established than ever before, and available space is a priority. Fusion splicing is used for FTTH applications to install connectors. Drop cable customers can use the new splice connector technology for fall cable fusion splicers.For example, expensive 10G certified Cat6A cables can be used instead of duplex fiber-optic cables, which require expensive transceivers. As a result, high-density solutions such as MTP / MPO connectors and multi-fiber cables, which require less wire space than single duplex cables, are becoming increasingly popular. While some manufacturers offer locally installed MTP and MPO connectors, many data center managers opt for Multi-Fiber Trunk Cable (MTP) or MPO (Factory Terminated End Fusion Splicing) or pre-terminated MTP (MPO) or Multi- Fiber LC Pigtails.They combine a fiber optic cable with a transceiver and eliminate the connectors. Fiber optic cables, also known as fiber optic cables, transmit data in light pulses through flexible pure fibers, glass or plastics. Thanks to their high data transmission speeds over long distances, they have become a popular choice for Ethernet networks and telecommunications applications.With thousands of connections, excessive slack leads to a lot of congestion, which restricts the proper airflow and cooling. An alternative is the purchase of multi-fiber pigtails that can be spliced into a multi-fiber cable. Sharp bends of 1.5 cm radius should be avoided, as they strain the fiber and cause optical losses.
5 Things You Need to Understand About Cable Length Testers
5 Things You Need to Understand About Cable Length Testers
WireMap - WireMap tests to ensure that the cables are connected from pin to pin according to the standard of connection. Testing the wiring of a UTP / Cat 5E / 6 / 6A cable with the full scope of the cable to check its performance is very important.This term is used by manufacturers and testers to mean that the cable is tested to pass one of the CAT 5E, 6 or 6A certifications, and the tester tests the standards set in the performance parameters.These are the standards that the testers use for those who want to check the quality of their cables. Professional network testers are used in commercial environments and are used to certify that professional cable installers are working properly. Certification audits are a way for installers to ensure that the cables that go into the network meet TIA and ISO requirements.These qualification testers meet the needs of network technicians who install new cabling not only but also to troubleshoot network operations. Professional testers have more skills when it comes to troubleshooting cables while maintaining high accuracy. Qualification testers conduct tests to determine whether existing cabling in a connection meets the requirements for fast Ethernet, 100base-TX, VoIP (VoIP) and Gigabit Ethernet.You can test the cable performance of your home network (telephone cable, fiber optic cable, etc.). With the help of a qualification tester. Test your network cables as best you can with a network cable tester to get the job done. By connecting both ends of the cable, the tester takes on the task of making an accurate measurement for you of whether your cable is working or not.If you make your own cables, such as installing our own RJ45 BNC ends, we want to ensure that the cables are properly wired. With patch cables of Cat 6 and 6A, which are more than 20m long, we test according to the 20m standard, because we do not have a program that limits the number of longest cables. If you need a transfer speed of 1 Gbit / s, check that the cable has the properties to support it.If we attach the cables separately, the cable tester will find out where the cables come from and he will show me where pins 1, 2, 3.4 and 5 are so that they are wired correctly. If there is a crossover cable, the pins 4 and 5 are not correctly wired : 1 / 3 is swapped, 2 / 6 is swapped and 2 / 6 is at the other end of swap 1 / 3.The purpose of one of these tests is to find out if the cable is within the ballpark length of the max switch test, and if so, fine. If I carry a full-length cable and the switch says it is 310, it is a stroke of luck and I read 347 as the specification. When I used the original simple tester, I noticed something about it, and it told us that we had a bad cable.Since the LAN's transmit high-speed signals through the cable, the attenuation of the cable is a variable frequency signal, and certification testers must test at multiple frequency lines at multiple frequencies as specified in the specification 568. To do this, the tester must have at least one of them calculated and recorded at the end of the cables (the transmitting and the receiving).The specification limits the return losses not only to the length of the connecting cable, but also to the way in which the same pass / fail limit applies to the length of the cable. If the short distance change is too small a limit to be a stroke of luck, I recommend that we test the limit by setting up a shorter cable to be tested. In the case of longer cables, the limitation to crosstalk is loosened in addition to the different length.Test tools do not provide bandwidth readiness information for high-speed data communication. Verification tools should include additional features such as a time domain reflection (TDR) to determine the length of cable and the distance to interrupt a short circuit. The device should export the test results to a printable format with the required documentation.Ethernet cable testers, whether they call themselves testers or testers, do not need to measure the entire range of ANSI or TIA performance indicators required to accelerate and certify an Ethernet cable. Some failed ones generate quasi-certification reports with test field parameters that require the use of a digital signal to perform the test. They have less insight into the cable length without warning of potential problems, such as edge termination, which can cause problems reaching 10 gigabits.Your cable test reports are generated by our Fluke DTX-1800 cable tester and associated Fluke Linkware software. In order to explain how they are created and the meaning of the values and diagrams shown in them, we need to go into the specifications a little.A cable tester is an electronic device used to check the electrical connection between a signal cable and other wires in a module. The most basic cable testers are through testers that check for the presence of a conductive path between the ends of a cable and check the correct cable connectors on the cable. More advanced cable testers measure cable signal transmission characteristics such as resistance, signal attenuation, noise and interference.A network cable tester is a revolutionary device designed to test cable connections for functionality and reliability. It is a must for network technicians, network testers, cable testers and other related work to this area. A simple wire harness is a battery-powered portable instrument that draws electricity from one or more voltage indicators in a switching / scanning arrangement and checks several conductors simultaneously.Nevertheless, network and cable testers in this industry are essential for homeowners because they can help avoid network problems and maintain home cable connections. A reliable cable and network tester is able to fix problems and help you identify cable problems and connection problems.In this post, Comptia Network Instructor Rick Trader shows some of the most popular cable testers and how to use them in a network configuration. Now that we have covered cable connectors, let's take a look at the tools we can use to test our various cables in our environment.
Working Principle of Cable Fault Tester
Working Principle of Cable Fault Tester
Working principle of power cable fault tester consists of three main parts: power cable fault tester host, cable fault locator and cable path tester. The host of the cable fault tester is used to measure the nature and total length of the cable fault and the approximate position between the cable fault point and the test end. The cable fault locator determines the exact location of the cable fault point based on the approximate location of the cable fault point determined by the host of the cable fault tester. For buried cables with unknown direction, a pathfinder shall be used to determine the underground direction of the cable. The basic method of power cable fault test is to apply high-voltage pulse to the fault power cable to produce breakdown at the cable fault point. When the cable fault breakdown point discharges, it generates electromagnetic wave and sound at the same time. The working principle of the application of arc reflection method (secondary pulse method) in cable fault location: firstly, a high voltage pulse with a certain voltage level and energy is applied to the faulty cable at the test end of the cable to make the high resistance fault point of the cable break down and burn arc. At the same time, add the low-voltage pulse for measurement at the test end. When the measurement pulse reaches the high resistance fault point of the cable, it encounters an arc and reflects on the surface of the arc. When arcing, the high resistance fault becomes an instantaneous short-circuit fault, and the low-voltage measurement pulse will change obviously in impedance characteristics, so that the waveform of flashover measurement becomes a low-voltage pulse short-circuit waveform, making the waveform discrimination particularly simple and clear. This is what we call the "secondary pulse method". The received low-voltage pulse reflection waveform is equivalent to the waveform of a wire core completely short circuited to ground. Superimpose the low-voltage pulse waveform obtained when releasing the high-voltage pulse and when not releasing the high-voltage pulse. The two waveforms will have a divergence point, which is the reflected waveform point of the fault point. This method combines low-voltage pulse method with high-voltage flashover technology, which makes it easier for testers to judge the location of fault point. Compared with the traditional test methods, the advantage of the secondary pulse method is to simplify the complex waveform in the impulse high-voltage flashover method into the simplest low-voltage pulse short-circuit fault waveform, so the interpretation is very simple and the fault distance can be accurately calibrated. The triple pulse method adopts the double impact method to prolong the arc burning time and stabilize the arc, which can easily locate the high resistance fault and flashover fault. The triple pulse method has advanced technology, simple operation, clear waveform and fast and accurate positioning. At present, it has become the mainstream positioning method of high resistance fault and flashover fault. The third pulse method is an upgrade of the second pulse method. The method is to first measure the reflected waveform of the low-voltage pulse without breaking through the fault point of the measured cable, then impact the fault point of the cable with the high-voltage pulse to generate an arc, trigger the medium voltage pulse when the arc voltage drops to a certain value to stabilize and prolong the arc time, and then send the low-voltage pulse, Thus, the reflected waveform of the fault point is obtained. After the superposition of the two waveforms, it can also be found that the divergence point is the corresponding position of the fault point. Because the medium voltage pulse is used to stabilize and prolong the arc time, it is easier to obtain the fault point waveform than the secondary pulse method. Compared with the secondary pulse method, the triple pulse method does not need to select the synchronization time of arc burning, and the operation is also more simple.
How to Test Your Cable/ Internet Connection: 3 Ways to Check That It's Working Or Not
How to Test Your Cable/ Internet Connection: 3 Ways to Check That It's Working Or Not
...Testing your cable/internet connection is very important, but there are three ways to test it and each of them will take a little bit of time and patience. If you have your cable/internet connection working then it will be ready to use, but if you have a problem with your cable/internet connection, you should test it first. Once you have found the problem with your cable/internet connection, you can take the cable/internet connection to a technician or look for a replacement.There are lots of ways to check your internet connection and a couple of methods that we could use would be through WIFI testers, Wire cutters and If you use your phone for internet browsing you should check that it's not a virus. Even if you do not have access to a smartphone you should check that your internet connection is working.Is your Internet connection not working as it should? Or maybe you have a problem with your cable? If you have problems with your cable, a few simple steps can be followed to see if it is working properly.... To test your cable/internet connection, do the following.In the UK and USA we have so many devices and computers connected to the internet. Most of these devices have a data plan that will provide you with a broadband connection. Some of these devices will allow you to access other internet services, like video streaming. If you have an unlimited data plan then it is a good idea to check the connection you have to see if it is working or not.This article is a great place to start if you're a blogger who wants to find out how to test your internet connection or cable. Even if you are in a business that relies on a cable connection or internet connection it is a good idea to check your connection at least once a week. It is the same for a phone line, even if you have an internet connection it is important to check it too. There are several ways to check your connection, you could get a signal on your phone but it would not give you the full picture, so you could get your signal on your computer. There are many ways to check your connection.
Basic Principle of Live Cable Identification Instrument
Basic Principle of Live Cable Identification Instrument
As the running live cable is not allowed to damage any grounding wire and other connecting wires, nor is it allowed to directly add the output signal of the live cable identifier transmitter to the cable phase line with high voltage. Two difficult problems need to be solved for live cable identification. One is how to couple the cable identification signal to the cable; Second, the coupled signal is generally small, and the operating cable may have 50Hz power frequency electromagnetic interference composed of 50Hz unbalanced current, induced 50Hz interference current, cable distributed capacitance current, etc. the high-sensitivity receiving caliper has the problem of how to resist 50Hz power frequency interference. The charged cable identification instrument developed by US adopts single chip microcomputer coding and decoding technology and PSK technology widely used in the field of communication. The phase coded signal with an average value of 0 is transmitted on the transmitting caliper, and the single chip microcomputer in the receiving caliper performs phase identification after filtering the received signal by hardware and software. When the receiving caliper cards the cable according to the current direction, the identified cable ammeter deviates to the right, accompanied by audible and visual indication. The current direction of other cables is opposite to that of the identified cable, and the ammeter pointer deviates to the left. No audible and visual indication. This reflects the uniqueness of the identified target cable. It is easy to distinguish the identified cable from multiple cables. In addition, since the signal current strength on the identified cable is the same throughout the line, the electromagnetic signal strength received by the receiving caliper along the cable is the same. In principle, the identified cable is not limited by the length of the identified cable. Dear customers: Hello, our company is a high-quality development group with strong technical force, providing users with high-quality products, complete solutions and superior technical services. The main products are high voltage cable fault tester, cable fault tester, underground cable fault tester, etc. The enterprise adheres to the tenet of building a business in good faith, keeping the business with quality and developing the business with enterprising. It continues to climb new peaks with a firmer pace and make contributions to the national automation industry. New and old customers are welcome to buy their favorite products at ease. We will serve you wholeheartedly!
Some Tips for Using Cable Fault Locator
Some Tips for Using Cable Fault Locator
Some tips of cable fault locator: the occurrence of cable fault is accompanied by the laying and use of cable. The positioning of cable fault is gradually increasing with the different laying methods of cable. Among them, the positioning and search of bridge, tunnel and open laying in ditch is relatively simple, and the positioning and search of direct burial is difficult. When the fault nature is simple, the cable fault locator adopts special cable fault location equipment, which can locate the fault within dozens of minutes. When the fault is special, it often takes 4-5 days or even longer to locate the fault. When using echo method for cable fault location, sometimes by transferring the fault phase and wiring mode, complex faults are often transformed into simple faults, and the fault location is quickly determined to win time for the emergency repair of on-site lines, which is of great significance to the power supply user department. Low voltage power cables are generally multi-core cables. After laying and continuous use, they generally show two core and multi-core phase to phase or phase to ground short circuit faults. Sometimes, when it is detected that the fault waveform collected by a core is not ideal, it can be considered to convert the wiring to other fault cores for fault waveform detection, which often has unexpected effects. The collected and detected waveforms will become more typical and regular, so the specific location of cable fault point can be determined quickly. During the long-term on-site measurement of cable customers, it is found that the fault of small cross-section copper core directly buried power cable (35mm2 and below) and aluminum core cable may be accompanied by short-circuit and wire breaking fault at the same time. During on-site detection, changing the short-circuit fault to wire breaking fault measurement according to the different fault nature of each fault core will often double everything with half the effort. For the medium voltage direct buried power cable with extruded armor as the inner lining, the fault is mostly caused by external mechanical damage. When the insulating core fails, the inner lining may have been damaged. In case of special cable insulation fault, it is difficult to collect waveform with professional cable fault instrument. It can be considered to use the acoustic method to apply the high-voltage pulse directly between the steel strip and copper shielding layer of the cable, which will often be fixed quickly. In the field measurement process, we also found that when using the acoustic measurement method to locate the fault point of low-voltage cable, when the high-voltage line and ground wire are connected between the bad phase and the metal shield or armor, the sound is very small, so the probe can not be used to listen to the fixed point, and the effect is not ideal. Through the actual listening side on site for many times, it is found that if the distance between the discharge ball gap is appropriately increased, and the high voltage and grounding wire are connected between the two phases of the fault, the discharge sound will become larger and the fault point will be determined quickly.
Three Common Methods for OTDR Optical Fiber Testing
Three Common Methods for OTDR Optical Fiber Testing
Optical fiber communication is a communication mode with optical wave as carrier and optical fiber as transmission medium. Optical fiber communication has become the main means of information transmission and the cornerstone of "information highway" because of its long transmission distance, large information capacity and high communication quality. Optical fiber testing technology is the most extensive and basic special technology in the field of optical fiber applications. OTDR is the main instrument in the field of optical fiber testing technology. It is widely used in the maintenance and construction of optical fiber lines. It can measure the length of optical fiber, transmission attenuation of optical fiber, joint attenuation and fault location. OTDR has the advantages of short test time, fast test speed and high test accuracy.1. Two basic formulas supporting OTDR TechnologyOTDR (optical time domain reflectometer) is a high-tech and high-precision photoelectric integrated instrument made by using Rayleigh scattering and Fresnel reflection when optical pulse is transmitted in optical fiber. The semiconductor light source (LED or LD) outputs light pulses modulated by the driving circuit, which are injected into the tested optical cable line through the directional optical coupler and movable connector to become incident light pulses.When the incident light pulse is transmitted in the line, Rayleigh scattered light and Fresnel reflected light will be generated along the way. Most of the Rayleigh scattered light will be refracted into the cladding and attenuated. The back Rayleigh scattered light opposite to the propagation direction of the light pulse will be transmitted to the light inlet port of the line along the optical fiber, and will be transmitted to the photodetector through directional coupling shunt and converted into electrical signals, After low-noise amplification and digital averaging, the processed electrical signal is scanned synchronously with the trigger signal emitted from the back of the light source and becomes a reflected light pulse on the oscilloscope.The returned useful information is measured by the OTDR detector, and they are regarded as time or curve segments at different positions in the measured optical fiber. According to the time from transmitting signal to returning signal, and then determine the speed of light in quartz material, the distance (fiber length) l (unit: m) can be calculated, as shown in formula (1).In formula (1), n is the average refractive index and â–³ t is the transmission delay. The attenuation a (unit: dB / km) can be calculated by using the power level corresponding to the incident light pulse and the reflected light pulse and the length of the measured optical fiber, as shown in formula (2):2. Five parameter settings to ensure OTDR accuracy2.1 test wavelength selectionSince OTDR serves optical fiber communication, the test wavelength shall be selected before optical fiber test, and only 1310 nm or 1550 nm shall be selected for single-mode optical fiber. Since the influence of 1550 nm wavelength on the bending loss of optical fiber is much more sensitive than 1310 nm wavelength, 1550 nm wavelength is generally used to test the whole process optical fiber backscattering signal curve of an optical cable or an optical fiber transmission link, whether it is optical cable line construction, optical cable line maintenance or experiment and teaching.The shapes of the test curves at 1310nm and 1550nm are the same, and the measured fiber connector loss values are basically the same. If no problem is found in the 1550 nm wavelength test, the 1310 nm wavelength test is certainly no problem.If the 1550 nm wavelength is selected for testing, it is easy to find out whether there is excessive bending in the whole process of the optical fiber. If a large loss step is found somewhere on the curve, retest with 1310 nm wavelength. If the loss step disappears at 1310 nm wavelength, it indicates that there is excessive bending at this place, which needs to be further found and eliminated. If the loss step is also large at 1310 nm wavelength, there may be other problems in the optical fiber, which need to be found and eliminated. In the test of single-mode optical fiber line, 1550 nm wavelength should be selected as far as possible, so the test effect will be better.2.2 optical fiber refractive index selectionThe refractive index of the single-mode optical fiber used now is basically in the range of 1.4600 1.4800, which should be accurately selected according to the actual value provided by the optical cable or optical fiber manufacturer. For G.652 single-mode fiber, if 1310 nm wavelength is used in actual test, the refractive index is generally 1.4680; If 1550 nm wavelength is used, the refractive index is generally 1.468 5. Incorrect selection of refractive index will affect the test length.In equation (1), if the refractive index error is 0.001, an error of about 35 m will be generated in the relay section of 50000 M. Small mistakes in optical cable maintenance and troubleshooting will bring obvious errors, which must be paid enough attention during testing.2.3 selection of test pulse widthIf the set light pulse width is too wide, strong Fresnel reflection will be generated, which will increase the blind area. Although the narrow test light pulse has a small blind area, the test light pulse is too narrow, the power must be too weak, the corresponding backscattering signal is also weak, the backscattering signal curve will fluctuate, and the test error is large. The set optical pulse width shall not only ensure that there is no strong blind spot effect, but also ensure that the backscattering signal curve has sufficient resolution and can see each point along the optical fiber.Generally, an appropriate test pulse width is selected according to the length of the measured optical fiber, and an optimal value is determined after one or two trials. When the distance of the measured optical fiber is short (less than 5000 m), the blind area can be less than 10 m; When the distance of the measured optical fiber is long (less than 50000 m), the blind area can be less than 200 m; When the distance of the measured optical fiber is very long (less than 2500 000 m), the blind area can be up to more than 2000 m.In the single disk test, the blind area can be less than 10 m by properly selecting the optical pulse width (50 nm). If the average value is obtained through two-way test or multiple tests, the impact of blind area will be less.2.4 selection of test rangeThe range of OTDR refers to the maximum distance that the abscissa of OTDR can reach. During the test, the measuring range shall be selected according to the length of the measured optical fiber, and it is better that the measuring range is 1.5 times the length of the measured optical fiber. If the range selection is too small, it can not be seen comprehensively on the display screen of the optical time domain reflectometer; When the range selection is too large, the abscissa compression on the display screen of the optical time domain reflectometer can not be seen clearly.According to the practical experience of engineers and technicians, the selection of test range can make the backscatter curve account for about 70% of the OTDR display screen, whether it is length test or loss test, better direct viewing effect and accurate test results can be obtained.In the test of optical fiber communication system, the link length is hundreds to thousands of kilometers, the relay section length is 40 60 km, and the single optical cable length is 2 4km. Good test results can be obtained by selecting the range of OTDR.2.5 selection of averaging timeBecause the backscattered light signal is extremely weak, the method of multiple statistical average is generally used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. OTDR test curve samples the reflected signal after each output pulse, and averages the multiple samples to eliminate random events. The longer the averaging time is, the closer the noise level is to the minimum value, and the larger the dynamic range is. The dynamic range obtained with an average time of 3 min is 0.8 dB higher than that obtained with an average time of 1 min.Generally speaking, the longer the averaging time, the higher the test accuracy. In order to improve the test speed and shorten the overall test time, the test time can be selected within 0.5 3 min.In the connection test of optical fiber communication, satisfactory results can be obtained by selecting 1.5 min (90 s).3 three common methods of OTDR testingWhen OTDR tests optical cables and optical fibers, the test occasions include factory test of optical cables and optical fibers, construction test of optical cables and optical fibers, maintenance test and regular test of optical cables and optical fibers. The test connection of OTDR is shown in Figure 1.The test connection method is: OTDR - optical fiber connector - the first optical cable - the second optical cable - the nth optical cable, and the terminal is not connected to any equipment. According to the actual test work, there are three main methods:3.1 OTDR backward test methodThis method is mainly used to monitor the optical cable connection. The optical cable connection must be equipped with a special optical fiber fusion machine and optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR). After welding a fiber core, the welding machine will generally give the estimated attenuation value of this contact. This method of testing has three advantages:(1) OTDR is fixed, omitting the vehicles and a lot of manpower and material resources required for instrument transfer;(2) The test point is selected in the place where there is mains power without gasoline generator;(3) The test points are fixed to reduce the stripping of optical cables.At the same time, this method also has two disadvantages:(1) Due to distance and terrain constraints, it is sometimes impossible to ensure smooth communication;(2) With the continuous increase of connection distance, the test range and accuracy of OTDR are limited.At present, there are generally three methods to solve these problems:â‘ The use of mobile phones in the city and suburbs can keep the testers and successors in touch at any time, facilitate organization and coordination, and improve work efficiency.â‘¡ Contact by telephone. Make sure to connect one optical fiber (such as blue optical fiber unit and red optical fiber) to the optical telephone as the connecting line. Of course, the last optical fiber used for communication cannot be monitored because it cannot be contacted during fusion and fiber winding. Even so, the possibility of problems will be greatly reduced (if it is a 24 core optical cable, the probability of problems will be reduced to less than 1 / 24 of the original).â‘¢ When the optical cable connection reaches a relay distance, the OTDR moves forward.The test practice shows that these monitoring methods are effective to ensure quality and reduce rework.3.2 OTDR forward one-way test methodOTDR is tested at the first joint point in the optical fiber connection direction, and construction vehicles are used to transfer the test instruments and testers in advance. Using this method for monitoring, the test point and connection point always have only one disc of optical cable length, the attenuation accuracy of the test joint is high, and it is convenient for communication. At present, the length of one optical cable is about 2 3 km. In general terrain, communication can be ensured by using walkie talkie. If the optical cable has a corrugated steel strip protective layer, you can also use the magnet telephone to contact.The disadvantages of this test method are also obvious. Moving OTDR to each test point is labor-consuming and time-consuming, which is not conducive to the protection of instruments; The test points are also limited by the terrain, especially when the line is far away from the highway and the terrain is complex. Portable OTDR is selected for monitoring. The short-range test does not require high dynamic range of the instrument, and the small 0tdr has small volume, light weight and convenient movement, which can greatly reduce the workload of testers and improve the test speed and work efficiency.3.3 OTDR forward two-way test methodThe OTDR position is still the same as the "forward one-way" monitoring, but two optical fibers are respectively short circuited at the beginning of the connection direction to form a loop. This method can not only meet the optical fiber test of relay section, but also monitor the optical fiber connection. When testing the optical fiber in the relay section, the incident light pulse, reflected light pulse, joint point, fracture point, fault point and attenuation distribution curve can be clearly seen on the display screen of the optical time domain reflectometer. The OTDR test event type and display are shown in Figure 2, which can provide convenience for optical cable maintenance.When monitoring optical fiber connection, due to the increase of loopback point, the bidirectional value of connection loss can be measured on OTDR. The advantage of this method is that it can accurately evaluate the quality of the joint.Due to the test principle and optical fiber structure, there will be false gain and false large attenuation in one-way monitoring with OTDR. For an optical fiber connector, the mathematical average of attenuation values in two directions can accurately reflect its real attenuation value. For example, the attenuation of a connector measured from a to B is 0.16 dB, and that measured from B to a is -0.12 dB. In fact, the attenuation of this connector is [0.16 (- 0.12)] / 2 = 0.02 dB.4 ConclusionAs the main instrument of optical fiber communication,
The Best Wire Tracker for High Performance Monitoring
The Best Wire Tracker for High Performance Monitoring
The introduction of wire trackerWire tracker is a future trend in online advertising and it will become more and more popular. It announces the ad creative for your target audience which they can see right when they click on the ad. This step helps you to get better conversions than before as you know that your ad is already working for your product or service, making it easier to persuade them to buy from you.Tips for wire trackerA wire tracker is an application that allows you to keep a record of all the contacts that you receive from your clients. It allows you to track them and create a report on them in order to learn what they like and dislike in order to increase your productivity.The main reason for using a wire tracker is by increasing the efficiency of your work by making sure that your clients are contacting you with the right content. To be able to do this, use software like WireTracker (available for iOS and Android).How to use wire tracker?The purpose of this section is to describe how an AI wire tracker can be used.The specifications of wire trackerWe are all familiar with wire tracking, its purpose is to track when the customer is online and what they are doing while they are online. But, what if we could help our customers understand exactly how their product works? What would happen if we could create a detailed visual representation of a product's functionality that our customers can understand exactly by studying it?The goal of this article is to highlight the capabilities and limitations of wire tracking. By using a combination of computer vision and machine learning techniques, we can create interactive visual representations of products that show in-depth information on their functions. By combining these features into one tool, we will be able to make more complex visual representations for our customers.The product instructions of wire trackerThis is a great example of how AI-assisted product instructions can make products look more appealing to their potential buyers.The application of wire trackerA wire tracker is a computer program that records information about the sending and receiving of emails. This information can be used to recover the sender’s email address, order address, email subject and keywords.
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