Guide to Shop Wire Tracker Tester in NOYAFA

Guide to Shop Wire Tracker Tester in NOYAFA

2021-10-25
NOYAFA
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wire tracker tester of SHENZHEN NOYAFA ELECTRONIC CO.,LIMITED is tempting customers with an appealing design and outstanding performance. Our choice of material is based on a product’s functionality. We only select the materials that can improve the overall performance of the product. Tthe product is absolutely durable and functional. What's more, with a practical design, the product broads an extensive application prospect.There are new members joining in NOYAFA every year. As a product category, they are always combined to achieve a joint effect. They, as a whole, are displayed at the exhibitions every year and are purchased in large quantities. They have been certified and verified by authorities and are allowed to sell all over the world. Based on continued R&D and yearly updates, they will always be leaders in the market. For branding ourselves and bringing custom-tailored solutions, we built Best Cable Tester Supplier in China _ Noyafa.
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Negative Sequence Current and Negative Sequence Voltage Components Appear in Cable Fault Tester
Negative Sequence Current and Negative Sequence Voltage Components Appear in Cable Fault Tester
Relays used in the circuits of relay protection devices and electrical automatic devices are generally made of electromagnetic, inductive, electrodynamic and magnetoelectric principles. In recent years, there have been magnetoelectric devices using rectified current, magnetic relays with saturated inductance coils and electronic relays, and relays using semiconductors are being studied. The purpose of studying and adopting these new principles of relays is to simplify the structure of relays, improve their reliability and improve their parameters. Use indirect methods to indicate that there is a fault or improper working state in the power system. For example, this kind of relay has the ability to react with the generation of gas, the generation of heat, the increase of pressure, etc. The relay protection device must have the function of correctly distinguishing whether the protected element is in normal operation state or has a fault, whether it is a fault in the protection area or a fault outside the protection area. In order to realize this function, the protection device needs to be composed based on the characteristics of changes in electrical physical quantities before and after power system failure. The three-phase / six phase relay protection tester is developed by using Zui new digital technology, high-precision electronic devices, microcomputer system and new structure of line and cable fault tester. It can independently complete the device test in professional fields such as microcomputer protection, relay protection, excitation, measurement, cable fault tester and fault recording. It is widely used in scientific research, production and electrical test sites in electric power, petrochemical, metallurgy, railway, aviation, military and other industries. After power system failure, the main characteristics of power frequency electrical quantity change are: (1) current increase. In case of short circuit, the current on the electrical equipment and transmission line between the fault point and the power supply will increase from the load current to greatly exceed the load current. (2) Voltage drop. In case of phase to phase short circuit and grounding short circuit faults, the phase to phase voltage or phase voltage value of each point of the system decreases, and the closer to the short circuit point, the lower the voltage. (3) The phase angle between current and voltage changes. During normal operation, the phase angle between current and voltage is the power factor angle of load, generally about 20. In case of three-phase short circuit, the phase angle between current and voltage of cable fault tester is determined by the impedance angle of the line, generally 60 85. In case of three-phase short circuit in the opposite direction of protection, the phase angle between current and voltage is 180 (60 85). (4) The measured impedance changes. Measuring impedance is the ratio of voltage and current at the measuring point (protection installation). During normal operation, the measured impedance is load impedance; In case of metal short circuit, the measured impedance changes to line impedance. After fault, the measured impedance decreases significantly and the impedance angle increases. Negative sequence current and negative sequence voltage components appear; In case of single-phase grounding, negative sequence and zero sequence current and voltage components appear. These components do not appear during normal operation. The relay protection of various principles can be formed by using the change of electrical quantity during short-circuit fault.
Some Tips for Using Cable Fault Locator
Some Tips for Using Cable Fault Locator
Some tips of cable fault locator: the occurrence of cable fault is accompanied by the laying and use of cable. The positioning of cable fault is gradually increasing with the different laying methods of cable. Among them, the positioning and search of bridge, tunnel and open laying in ditch is relatively simple, and the positioning and search of direct burial is difficult. When the fault nature is simple, the cable fault locator adopts special cable fault location equipment, which can locate the fault within dozens of minutes. When the fault is special, it often takes 4-5 days or even longer to locate the fault. When using echo method for cable fault location, sometimes by transferring the fault phase and wiring mode, complex faults are often transformed into simple faults, and the fault location is quickly determined to win time for the emergency repair of on-site lines, which is of great significance to the power supply user department. Low voltage power cables are generally multi-core cables. After laying and continuous use, they generally show two core and multi-core phase to phase or phase to ground short circuit faults. Sometimes, when it is detected that the fault waveform collected by a core is not ideal, it can be considered to convert the wiring to other fault cores for fault waveform detection, which often has unexpected effects. The collected and detected waveforms will become more typical and regular, so the specific location of cable fault point can be determined quickly. During the long-term on-site measurement of cable customers, it is found that the fault of small cross-section copper core directly buried power cable (35mm2 and below) and aluminum core cable may be accompanied by short-circuit and wire breaking fault at the same time. During on-site detection, changing the short-circuit fault to wire breaking fault measurement according to the different fault nature of each fault core will often double everything with half the effort. For the medium voltage direct buried power cable with extruded armor as the inner lining, the fault is mostly caused by external mechanical damage. When the insulating core fails, the inner lining may have been damaged. In case of special cable insulation fault, it is difficult to collect waveform with professional cable fault instrument. It can be considered to use the acoustic method to apply the high-voltage pulse directly between the steel strip and copper shielding layer of the cable, which will often be fixed quickly. In the field measurement process, we also found that when using the acoustic measurement method to locate the fault point of low-voltage cable, when the high-voltage line and ground wire are connected between the bad phase and the metal shield or armor, the sound is very small, so the probe can not be used to listen to the fixed point, and the effect is not ideal. Through the actual listening side on site for many times, it is found that if the distance between the discharge ball gap is appropriately increased, and the high voltage and grounding wire are connected between the two phases of the fault, the discharge sound will become larger and the fault point will be determined quickly.
The Application of Wire Tracker
The Application of Wire Tracker
A wire tracker is a tool to monitor and analyze email marketing campaigns. It allows marketers to see which emails are delivered to the right people and at the right time.Which company has best range of OBD trackers for car? B2B companies will be preferred.Protect your car now with OBD Vehicle Tracker VT200Get the real time location of your vehicle with OBD vehicle tracker VT200. Know the OBD real time data and detect your vehicle instantly. It's additional feature of built in backup battery makes it more advanced to track and monitor your vehicle smoothly and efficiently. We manufactures best car tracker in South Africa & GPS Trackers in the categories of personal, fitness, asset, pet, and vehicle trackers. Not just trackers, but the company also provides competent OEM/ODM/JDM, Cloud, and Prototype Development Services.To get more information about our services visit ThinkRace TechnologyWhich company has best range of OBD trackers for car? B2B companies will be preferred.Is it true that Dictionary.com installs the most trackers on a user's computer?I have no doubt that it's true, I trust the accuracy of the Wall Street Journal. You avoid that problem completely with the proper settings in your browser. In Internet Explorer click Tools > Internet Options, click the Privacy tab, click the Advanced button, select Override Automatic Cookie Handling, under First-party Cookies select Accept, under Third-party Cookies select Block, select Always Allow Session Cookies, click OK 3rd party cookies are also called tracking cookies. Nobody needs them! ..Should we use different project trackers for different teams working on the same product?In addition to the above, if you break it into a few systems, there is a risk that you will lose good visibility of your product's state and progressAre there easier ways to report about malfunctions experienced while using Ubuntu other than using particular bug trackers?We really encourage you to use the bug tracker even if you are not sure which package(s) the symptoms affect. A dedicated team will triage your bug report and assist in engaging the relevant upstream developers so that an appropriate fix can be developed, tested, and made available in an Ubuntu releaseSeparate trackers for features and defects? [closed]Hey. I actually have the same setup at my work. I must say it does not have sense, if you use QC only to store defects. If you need bug tracking, you can stick with Jira. But you must understand that QC is tool dedicated for QA and it does much more. So it has sense to have Jira and QC if you (I mean QA at your work ) use all/most of QC features and you have Jira plugin that synchronizes defects between QC and Jira (I know about two plugins for Jira like that).[end of answer] If you are thinking 'but why the fck QA needs this stupid tool?' let me uncover a bit about QC for you. Please understand that although both provide bug tracking capabilities, they have very different target and purpose. I assume that most people (programmers) here know Jira, so I will uncover a bit about QC for you: P.S. It is a big tool, used properly works great, otherwise it sucksCan People Fool Benevolent Brother's 'Alibi Trackers' and Escape?As Angel pointed out, the system as you described is vulnerable to MitM and proxying attacks.For a secure alibi, we need the process to work like this:CT then knows these things:The following tricks are therefore avoided:Light speed is 300,000 km/sec, so 10km is 10/300,000 seconds, or about 33 microseconds. 66 for a round trip.The inaccuracy of cell triangulation is quite high: only to the nearest 1000m (about 3 light-milliseconds). So we can only calculate transmission times to the tower with an accuracy of about 3ms.Still, if a signal is delayed by 33 microseconds each way, that's 10 times the deviation we are willing to accept, and it means there's something up.With a system like this, proxying as described by Angel could work, but only within at most 1000m of where you are meant to be. You might be able to get a few more meters out of it, if instead of a single proxy, you put one on each triangulating cell tower, with a directional antenna to speak only to that tower. But it would not help much.Worse, the 1000m becomes MUCH less in areas where there are a lot of cell towers so triangulation is more accurate. And you can never tell how many towers there are, since they could be hidden. It would be in BB's interest to have lots of them.Benevolent Brother is not stupid.In the case of sophisticated tricks, no alarm would sound, no paddy-wagons get sent out. That's for people who just put on tin-foil hats and call it a day, not for sophisticated hackers. Benevolent Brother knows that everything like this is an arms race: once people know that their clever tricks do not work any more, they go to ground until they can develop cleverer and cleverer tricks. So it's important to let them think they are winning the arms race, so they do not develop better tricks.So, BB is unlikely to act overtly against someone using Angel's proxying trick, and instead will focus other surveillance methods on them until it's certain that everyone involved in producing the system has been identified, and he knows what they are planning. .. which he might even allow to continue. Since anyone who made proxying or spoofing equipment would be known, and all uses of the equipment would be of highest interest to BB, anyone getting hold of the equipment for a sophisticated trick would likely already be under very close surveillance before even using it.So, if you can not fool it, what can you do?I think the answer is obvious. They are tracking the movements of your head, your phone, your car, your public transport use, your creditcard use. They are using facial recognition on the surveillance cameras on every corner, and every cellphone and car is also a surveillance camera. They will know if you go anywhere you should not be.So if the smuggler's den is under a big farmer's market, take up an interest in fresh fruit and veg, and then you are just visiting the market. Well, it's the weekend, why not visit some museums and galleries? Why it's practically your civic duty to gaze upon those portraits and busts of Benevolent Brother every now and then.To evade the Alibi Tracker, you do not need fancy technology hacks. You need... an ALIBI
Model Prototype: OXO Handheld Screwdriver
Model Prototype: OXO Handheld Screwdriver
This project focused on creating a low-fi 3D prototype of a potential design for a OXO electric handheld screwdriver with the following specifications:variable speed control you decide the mechanism/interaction and whether it is fluid or distinct settingsscrew-driver selection mechanism (either digital or non-digital your choice) allows you to automatically select and switch between either Phillips or flathead shape and five different sizes of each shape (for 10 total screwhead choices)screw-driver direction selection mechanism (non-digital) to either screw in or unscrewdigital readout (monochromatic, non-touch sensitive) of number of screws screwed and screws unscrewed for tracking your progress as a handypersoncan be used right or left-handedproduct dimensions are a minimum of 6 inches long and must be able to contain a rechargeable batteryproduct weight is between 11.5 poundsFor each of the feature criteria above, I came up with an idea for how I would implement it onto the prototype:Trigger pressure or wheel to control speedDouble wheel selection to change between head type and sizeA switch to control screw and unscrew optionsA digital number display to show the digital readoutA charging port and the end of the handleHere are my sketch ideas for how the features would look on the device:After sketching the prototype, I thought I had a pretty good idea of the layout of the controls but there were some things I realized as I was conceptualizing the design. There were a lot of features to implement onto the screwdriver that would be difficult to fit onto a handheld device so as I was sketching, I tried to consider space as a constraint. Another thing I noticed was that there was a big difference in readability between putting numbers side-by-side and one top of the other.PrototypeTo build my prototype I used cardboard and tape. I made the prototype larger than the actual size it would be so that I could clearly display the features and test the interface functionality with a user. Here is what the prototype looks like:AnalysisTo test this prototype, I sat down with a participant and asked them to screw in and unscrew a screw at a specified setting while vocalizing their thought process. The user was able to complete the task but there were a few features that were unclear.Features that were unclear to the user:Used the Phillips instead of a flat head on the screwThought the unscrew/screw switch was to activate the screw driverSuggested moving the placement of the controlsThings that went well:User was satisfied with the easy controlsWas easily held and comfortable in their handsAble to complete the task without major issuesThe prototype worked well to complete specified tasks but it was a challenge trying to fit all the features onto a small device. Another challenge was how to test a trigger that would rely on users pressure. Without outright telling the user how the device is reacting to their actions, it can be difficult to simulate. I would improve the layout of the controls by minimizing their size and moving the size selection to the handle. I would also use text instead of symbols to show the different screw head types because it seemed to confuse users during testing RELATED QUESTION What are POP materials when it comes to advertising? Here are the most common POP signage. The Pop Up Counter These are used when a brand wants to give out product samples or do product demos. Image source: Portable Counters | Exhibition Tables | Fast TAT AUS Wide The Cardboard Display Stands Bunting Flags Bunting flags are not as common as before however a small number of brands still use this. Image source: Shelf Talkers Product Bins These are some of the most popular displays that brands use to promote their products in-store.
Why to Choose a Cable Continuity Testers for Your Home
Why to Choose a Cable Continuity Testers for Your Home
TCB360K1 Cable Prowler (tm) Pro Test Kit Full-color high-end cable length gauge with the ability to determine connection status and connectivity for POE detection. Klein Tools VDV501-823 VV Scout (r) Pro 2 Tester Kit Test Voice (RJ11-12) and Data (RJ45) via Video-to-F connector or coaxial connection. Before testing, make sure you remove the cable from your computer, modem or router.A cable tester checks the electrical connection between signal and cable and confirms that everything is wired correctly at both ends of the cable. With the HOSA CBT 500 you can test your cable gigging quickly and easily.Check that the cable connection you want to test is ready for analysis and that the tester is not electrocuted or that the device breaks. Test your network cables as with a network cable tester and run the test. If you connect both ends of the cable, a network cable tester will do the job for you and get an accurate reading of whether your cable is working or not.If you need to test voltage and current continuity, you should get an electric tester. With these testers you can test the cable against volts, current and ohms to check if the circuit is short-circuited through the cable. The testers can measure both AC and DC voltage and current in seconds.Continuity tests help to verify and reverse electrical circuit connections. For example, when two wires melt in a sheathed cable, a continuity detector lights up when you touch one probe with the black wire and the other with the white wire. Continuity testers are also excellent for checking if the wires are running smoothly and to see if the circuit is complete.Continuity checks can also be used to detect problems with cold soldering between wires or wire products. In addition, this type of electrical testing can also be used to check connection pads and traces on printed circuit boards (PCBs ).The most common and basic method to perform a continuity test with the help of a resistance tester is a simple multimeter function. Specialized continuity testers are available, but the most basic is an inexpensive light bulb that lights up when electricity is flowing. A digital multimeter continuity test can be used to test switches, switches, fuses, electrical connections, conductors and other components.A continuity tester consists of a battery, a housing, a probe connected to one end of the housing and a test wire connected to the other end with an Alligator clip. A continuity test on an electrical circuit is performed when it is not switched on by using a tester. To use a continuity tester, first pull the device off the connector and disassemble it to get to the component you want to test.Continuity testers are easy to understand: they consist of a battery housed in a housing, a cover, a probe for testing the wire, a tensed end of the battery in the housing and an alligator clip for the second end.A continuous tester is an electrical tester used to determine whether an electrical path has been created between two points [1] where an electrical circuit is produced. Its user-friendliness is determined by the fact that it is a power switch to determine whether an electrical device maintains a flowing current flow in its body. If this is not the case, it is used to find out the root of the problem within the device.Testers are excellent for checking whether a device is working properly, such as a single-pole switch, or for checking lamp wiring to see that electrical paths are intact. Make sure you turn off the power for the circuit or the device you are testing. These test tools allow network technicians to isolate cabling problems and network protocols to solve problems.This works with any coaxial cable with a special tester, whether you are using a VDV512 or 007. Like James Bond, the tester will spy on the cable and help you identify and label the right cable.A continuity tester is a special electrical device used to check the continuity of cables and wires in a circuit. A network tester calculates the signal and power transmitted from one end of a connection to the other in a twisted pair. If the cable is continuous, this means that all voltages applied to the cable are in the same place.If you want to check the quality of your cables, use a standard tester. Professional network testers are used in commercial environments and are used by certified professional cable installers to get the job done.Test tools do not provide bandwidth readiness information for high-speed data communication. Certification audits are a way for installers to ensure that the cable fed into the network meets TIA and ISO requirements. These tests are performed by professional network testers and certified installers.To help you find the best network and cable tester for your use, I have compiled a list of test products that work well. The LinkIQ cable network tester is easy to use as explains Eric Webb, Flukes Network Product Manager, in the video below. It shows the settings to use and how to use them to perform cable tests, save the results and upload them to linkware where they are available.I came across the Elegiant Network Cable Tester while working on establishing a LAN connection for a local company. With my extensive experience as an electrician, I can say that this is the best tool for testing cable connections.Selecting, selecting and purchasing a suitable network cable tester can be a complicated and challenging task. In this article, a great effort has been made to show you how to test the continuity of circuits and how a good continuity tester will handle your situation. This article examines which tools are best suited for normal cables, which are best suited for coaxial cables, which are to be used and which cable types are to be considered when measuring the limit values.
Structure of Mine Cable Fault Tester
Structure of Mine Cable Fault Tester
1. The mine cable fault tester is composed of control part (low voltage) and high voltage rectifier, discharge and test part. Sufficient safety space shall be reserved between high and low pressure room, high and low pressure room and shell. 2. In order to ensure the safety of equipment and personnel, special personnel must operate with keys before high-voltage startup. 3. During each flaw detection or cable test, it can ensure that the high voltage rises slowly from the zero position, with the shape of high and low voltage limit. The pressure rise or fall process is controlled by the button, the voltage rise and fall rate is stable, and the operation is safe and simple. 4. The DC withstand voltage test time can be automatically carried out after digital (or manually controlled), and the test time is accurate and reliable. 5. The leakage current can be measured at any time according to the needs of the withstand voltage test process. 6. The mine cable fault tester has over-current and short-circuit protection, startup warning and over-current protection. 7. The control panel is equipped with power switch, high-voltage start, high-voltage stop, step-up, step-down and other switches or buttons, voltage withstand test, digital time timing relay, etc. 8. There are high voltage, leakage current, low voltage total current and other measuring meters on the display board, power supply, high voltage, timing and other indicator lights, curve observation window for ball gap discharge, etc. 9. Special high voltage discharge * * is equipped for discharge after each flaw detection or test to ensure safety. There is a grounding mark at the bottom of the box. Dear customers: the company also has cable fault detector, buried cable fault detector and underground pipeline detector products. You can call the company's service phone through the web page to learn more product details. Perfect service is our pursuit. New and old customers are welcome to buy their favorite products at ease. We will serve you wholeheartedly!
Common Power Cable Test Methods
Common Power Cable Test Methods
If the cable insulation is damaged or aging, short circuit, disconnection, grounding and other faults may occur in use, affecting the safe operation of the power system. Power cable plays an important role in power transmission and distribution system, so it is of great practical significance to detect power cable faults regularly or irregularly. Here is a popular science about common power cable test methods. AC withstand voltage test of main insulation (series resonance test equipment) is an effective method to test the ability of cable insulation to withstand various overvoltage. It is a strict, direct and effective test method to determine the insulation strength of cable. Cable fault location and cable path identification: the cable fault detector system is composed of cable fault detector, high voltage pulse generator, pointing instrument and cable comprehensive detector, which is used to detect cable low resistance, short circuit, open circuit fault, high resistance leakage and high resistance lightning fault, correct direction and depth of underground cable and locate open circuit, short circuit and skin fault points of cable. Partial discharge inspection: different from using ultrasonic detector products to detect common transformer partial discharge, vibration wave partial discharge detection is used for cable partial discharge. This detection method is based on LC damping vibration principle and uses attenuated vibration wave voltage with frequency in the range of 20-800hz instead of working frequency AC voltage detection equipment. It is mainly used to detect the main insulation For the insulation condition of the joint and terminal, its waveform and frequency are close to the sine wave of the working frequency, the action time is short, and will not cause damage to the cable. Infrared temperature measurement: the infrared thermal imager uses the infrared thermometer and optical image mirror to receive the infrared radiation energy distribution pattern of the temperature measurement target, which is reflected on the photosensitive part of the infrared thermometer to obtain the infrared thermal image map. The thermal image map corresponds to the thermal distribution field on the object surface, and the infrared thermal imager is used to detect the infrared radiation signal on the cable surface. The cable identifier manufacturer summarizes the common power cable detection classification. In practical application, power cable detection is closely related to insulator detection. Usually, various insulator fault detectors, insulator distributed voltage detectors and other products need to be used to detect various faults of insulators, especially in the annual spring detection of power companies, such as power cables, switchgear Transformers, overhead lines, insulators and various fittings shall be systematically tested to ensure the safe operation of the power system as a whole.
New Technology of Optical Fiber Communication
New Technology of Optical Fiber Communication
1. Concept of WDMWDM (wavelength division multiplexing) technology is a technology that transmits multiple wavelength optical signals in one optical fiber at the same time.The basic principle of optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is that the optical signals of different wavelengths are combined (multiplexed) at the transmitting end and coupled to the same optical fiber on the optical cable line for transmission, and the optical signals of combined wavelengths are separated (demultiplexed) at the receiving end for further processing, and the original signals are recovered and sent to different terminals. Therefore, this technology is called optical wavelength division multiplexing, Referred to as optical wavelength division multiplexing technology.How wide is the bandwidth of optical fiber?As shown in Fig. 7.6, there are two low loss transmission windows in the optical fiber: the wavelength is 1.31 μ m(1.25~1.35 μ m) Window, corresponding bandwidth (| Δ f|=|- Δλ c/ λ 2|, λ and Δλ Are the central wavelength and corresponding band width respectively, C is the speed of light in vacuum) is 17700 GHz; Wavelength 1.55 μ m(1.50~1.60 μ m) The corresponding bandwidth is 12500 GHz.When the two windows are combined, the total bandwidth exceeds 30thz. If the channel frequency interval is 10GHz, ideally, one fiber can accommodate 3000 channels.At present, some optical devices and technologies are not very mature, so it is difficult to realize optical frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) with dense optical channels. In this case, wavelength division multiplexing with small channel spacing in the same window is called dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM).At present, the system is an optical communication system composed of 8, 16 or more wavelengths on a pair of optical fibers (single optical fiber can also be used) in the 1550nm wavelength range, in which the spacing between each wavelength is 1.6nm, 0.8nm or less, which corresponds to the band width of 200ghz, 100GHz or narrower.WDM, DWDM and OFDM are not much different in essenceIn the past, technicians used to use WDM and DWDM to distinguish between 1310 / 1550nm simple multiplexing and 1550nm intensive multiplexing, but at present, DWDM technology is used in telecom applications.Since the multiplexing of 1310 / 1550nm exceeds the gain range of EDFA and is only used in some special occasions, WDM is often used to replace DWDM.WDM technology is of great significance for network upgrading, developing broadband services (such as CATV, HDTV and IP over WDM), fully tapping the potential of optical fiber bandwidth and realizing ultra-high speed optical fiber communication. Especially WDM and EDFA have a strong attraction to modern information network.At present, "erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) dense wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) non-zero dispersion optical fiber (NZDSF, i.e. G.655 fiber) photonic integration (PIC)" is becoming the main technical direction of long-distance high-speed optical fiber communication lines in the world.If all optical fiber transmission links in an area are upgraded to WDM transmission, we can set an optical cross connection device (OXC) for cross connection of optical signals in wavelength units or an optical add drop multiplexer (OADM) for optical uplink and downlink at the intersection (node) of these WDM links, and a new optical layer will be formed on the physical layer originally composed of optical fiber links.In this optical layer, the wavelength channels in adjacent optical fiber links can be connected to form an optical path across multiple OXC and OADM to complete end-to-end information transmission, and this optical path can be flexibly and dynamically established and released according to needs, which is the eye-catching and new generation WDM all-optical network.2. Basic form of WDM systemOptical wavelength division multiplexer and demultiplexer are the key components of WDM technology. The device that combines signals of different wavelengths and outputs them through an optical fiber is called multiplexer (also known as multiplexer).On the contrary, the device that decomposes the multi wavelength signal sent by the same transmission fiber into each wavelength and outputs it respectively is called demultiplexer (also known as demultiplexer).In principle, this device is reciprocal (bidirectional reversible), that is, as long as the output and input of the demultiplexer are used in reverse, it is a multiplexer.Therefore, the multiplexer and demultiplexer are the same (unless there are special requirements).The basic composition of WDM system mainly includes the following two forms: dual fiber unidirectional transmission and single fiber bidirectional transmission.(1) Dual fiber unidirectional transmission.Unidirectional WDM transmission means that all optical paths are transmitted in the same direction on one optical fiber at the same time.As shown in Figure 7.7, dimmed signals with different wavelengths containing various information will be sent at the transmitter λ 1, λ 2,…, λ N is combined by optical multiplexers and transmitted unidirectionally in one optical fiber.Since the signals are carried through different light wavelengths, they will not be confused with each other.At the receiving end, signals of different wavelengths are separated by optical demultiplexer to complete the task of multi-channel optical signal transmission.The principle of transmission through another optical fiber in the opposite direction is the same.(2) Single fiber bidirectional transmission. Bidirectional WDM transmission means that the optical path transmits to two different directions on one optical fiber at the same time. As shown in Figure 7.8, the wavelengths used are separated from each other to realize bidirectional full duplex communication.Several key system factors must be considered in the design and application of bidirectional WDM system:For example, in order to suppress multi-channel interference (MPI), we must pay attention to the influence of light reflection, isolation between bidirectional paths, type and value of crosstalk, power level value and mutual dependence of two-way transmission, optical monitoring channel (OSC) transmission and automatic power shutdown, and use bidirectional fiber amplifier at the same time.Therefore, the development and application of bidirectional WDM system are relatively demanding, but compared with unidirectional WDM system, bidirectional WDM system can reduce the number of optical fibers and line amplifiers.In addition, by setting an optical add drop multiplexer (OADM) or optical cross connector (OXC) in the middle, the optical signals of each wavelength can be merged and shunted, and the wavelength add / drop and route allocation can be realized. In this way, the inserted or separated signals can be reasonably arranged according to the traffic distribution of optical fiber communication lines and optical networks.3. Performance parameters of optical wavelength division multiplexerOptical wavelength division multiplexer is an important part of wavelength division multiplexing system. In order to ensure the performance of wavelength division multiplexing system, the basic requirements for wavelength division multiplexer are:• low insertion loss• high isolation• flat in band and steep out of band insertion loss• good temperature stability• multiple channels• small size, etc(1) Insertion loss insertion loss refers to the additional loss caused by the addition of optical wavelength division multiplexer / demultiplexer, which is defined as the ratio of optical power between the input and output ports of the passive device, i.e(7.1)Where Pi is the optical power sent into the input port; Po is the optical power received from the output port.(2) Crosstalk suppression system crosstalk refers to the influence degree that the signals of other channels are coupled into a channel and degrade the transmission quality of the channel. Sometimes, this degree can also be expressed by isolation. For demultiplexer(7.2)Where Pi is the wavelength λ I is the input optical power of the optical signal, and PIJ is the wavelength λ The optical signal of I is connected in series to the wavelength of λ Optical power of channel J.(3) Return loss return loss refers to the ratio of the optical power returned from the input port of the passive device to the input optical power, i.e(7.3)Where PJ is the optical power sent into the input port, and PR is the return optical power received from the same input port.(4) Reflection coefficient reflection coefficient refers to the ratio of reflected light power PR to incident light power PJ at a given port of WDM device, i.e(7.4)(5) Working wavelength range working wavelength range refers to the wavelength range in which WDM devices can work according to the specified performance requirements( λ Min to λ max)。(6) Channel width channel width refers to the wavelength interval between light sources to avoid crosstalk.(7) Polarization dependent loss (PDL) refers to the maximum change of insertion loss caused by the change of polarization state.
Cable Fault Tester
Cable Fault Tester
Cable fault detector can be seen everywhere in our daily life. Cable fault detector plays a lot of roles. Cables on the road can divert people and vehicles. The guardrail beside the river can protect people from falling into the river. The guardrail beside the lawn can protect the lawn from being trampled by animals and people. Therefore, the role of guardrail is still great, The installation of guardrail is also very important. The installation of river guardrail needs special attention. Let's follow the traffic guardrail manufacturer to see how to install River guardrail. The river guardrail is a guardrail product installed next to the river to prevent pedestrians on the river road from falling into the river. The base to be fixed during the installation of the river guardrail can only be in the original position, which may cause the base to not be fixed and lose the significance of setting the river guardrail. Simply put, it is to install the guardrail at an oblique angle, hit 2 Road nails to fix the base, and the remaining 2 nail holes are used for later maintenance. After the base of the river guardrail is fixed, the column is installed. Insert the column into the base, and then install the expansion screw. After the screw is fixed, two people need to cooperate when tightening the screw. One person holds the column to keep it vertical. When tightening the screw, the other person can tighten the screws at both ends. In this way, the column and base are installed. The next step is to install the guardrail piece. The steel connecting sleeve connects the river guardrail and the column. This is generally fixed on the column before leaving the factory, so as to reduce the on-site operation process of constructors. Align the guardrail piece with the upper and lower connecting sleeves of the column, and connect the left and right accurately. The above is the introduction to the steps of installing the river guardrail. When installing the river guardrail, we should follow the steps strictly and master the installation skills of the river guardrail, so that we can make fewer mistakes in installation and ensure the performance of the river guardrail in the process of use. We are a professional guardrail manufacturer. If you need to buy our guardrail products, you can call us to communicate with us.
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During 15 years development, Noyafa has become the most famous brand in cable testing industry in China. With excellent production capability, reliable quality, good after-sales service, we get good reputation from customers all over the world.
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Contact Person:Lory Liu
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