What Is Telephone Cable Test Equipment?

What Is Telephone Cable Test Equipment?

2021-11-05
NOYAFA
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On this page, you can find quality content focused on telephone cable test equipment. You can also get the latest products and articles that are related to telephone cable test equipment for free. If you have any questions or want to get more information on telephone cable test equipment, please feel free to contact us.

SHENZHEN NOYAFA ELECTRONIC CO.,LIMITED has been an unwavering advocate of quality and innovation so as to promote telephone cable test equipment that highly complies with our advocation. In addition to the guarantee of quality, its materials have been proved to be non-toxic and are totally harmless to the human body. Also, the ambitious aim of our product is to lead the world in innovation and quality. The brand NOYAFA is of great importance to our company. Its word-of-mouth is excellent because of the precision collection of target clients, the direct interaction with target clients, and the timely collection and treatment of clients' feedbacks. The products are sold in large quantities worldwide and are delivered with almost no customer complaints. They are recognized for technology, quality, and service. This also contributes to the brand influence that it is now regarded as a top player in the industry. Good customer service is also important for us. We attract customers not only with high-quality products like telephone cable test equipment but also with comprehensive service. At Best Cable Tester Supplier in China _ Noyafa, supported by our powerful distribution system, efficient delivery is guaranteed. Customers can also get samples for reference.
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How Much Will It Take for Underground Wire Tracer Materials?
How Much Will It Take for Underground Wire Tracer Materials?
The share of raw material costs in the total costs for underground wire tracer depends on the different materials a producer used in his production. In the manufacturing industry, material cost accounting is a fundamental requirement for achieving success. To be competitive and profitable, manufacturers must understand and control the material cost. In the current economic conditions, many manufacturers have been searching for ways to improve material efficiency, in order to maintain profitability and a competitive advantage via providing maximum profit to customers.Best Cable Tester Supplier in China _ Noyafa is engaged in manufacturing and supplying full ranges of different underground wire tracer. underground wire tracer adopts new environmentally-friendly material. The experiments reveal that underground wire tracer is much more practical, it can be extended to any other kinds of underground wire tracer.Best Cable Tester Supplier in China _ Noyafa ensures our service is as reliable as our products. Check it!· Related Questions:1. How much will it cost for underground wire tracer production?Cost of production is a large issue in the underground wire tracer company. It's a key affecting the earnings and profit. If the company partners care about it, they might consider the profit. When the producers concentrate on this, it's possible they get an aim to decrease it. A whole supply chain is obviously a means for the producers to decrease the prices. This really is a now a tendency in the business, and is a reason behind M&A. ——————— 2. What is the proportion of material cost to total production cost for underground wire tracer?The ratio of raw material costs to total cost of underground wire tracer depends on the different materials used by producers in their production. In manufacturing, material costing is a basic requirement for success. In order to be competitive and profitable, manufacturers must understand and control material costs. In the future economic conditions, many manufacturers are constantly looking for ways to improve material efficiency in order to maintain a surplus and competitive advantage by providing customers with maximum profits.
Pulse Method of Cable Fault Tester
Pulse Method of Cable Fault Tester
Cable plays a very important role in daily life. If the cable fails, find the fault point in time and then repair it. Cable fault detector is the preferred tool for cable maintenance. It can accurately find the fault point, and then the construction personnel can carry out maintenance quickly, which is very effective in improving work efficiency. Today, we follow the cable fault tester manufacturer to understand what pulse method is. Working principle of power cable fault tester power cable fault tester consists of three main parts: power cable fault tester host, cable fault locator and cable path tester. The host of the cable fault tester is used to measure the nature and total length of the cable fault and the approximate position between the cable fault point and the test end. The cable fault locator determines the location of the cable fault point based on the approximate location of the cable fault point determined by the host of the cable fault tester. For buried cables with unknown direction, a pathfinder shall be used to determine the underground direction of the cable. The basic method of power cable fault test is to apply high-voltage pulse to the fault power cable to produce breakdown at the cable fault point. When the cable fault breakdown point discharges, it generates electromagnetic wave and sound at the same time. The working principle of the application of arc reflection method (secondary pulse method) in cable fault location: firstly, a high voltage pulse with a certain voltage level and energy is applied to the faulty cable at the test end of the cable to make the high resistance fault point of the cable break down and burn arc. At the same time, add the low-voltage pulse for measurement at the test end. When the measurement pulse reaches the high resistance fault point of the cable, it encounters an arc and reflects on the surface of the arc. When arcing, the high resistance fault becomes an instantaneous short-circuit fault, and the low-voltage measurement pulse will change obviously in impedance characteristics, so that the waveform of flashover measurement becomes a low-voltage pulse short-circuit waveform, making the waveform discrimination particularly simple and clear. This is what we call the secondary pulse method. The received low-voltage pulse reflection waveform is equivalent to the waveform of a complete short circuit between the core and the ground. Superimpose the low-voltage pulse waveform obtained when releasing the high-voltage pulse and when not releasing the high-voltage pulse. The two waveforms will have a divergence point, which is the reflected waveform point of the fault point. This method combines low-voltage pulse method with high-voltage flashover technology, which makes it easier for testers to judge the location of fault point. Compared with the traditional test methods, the advantage of the secondary pulse method is to simplify the complex waveform in the impulse high-voltage flashover method into a simple low-voltage pulse short-circuit fault waveform, so the interpretation is very simple and the fault distance can be accurately calibrated. The multiple pulse method adopts the double impact method to prolong the arc burning time and stabilize the arc, which can easily locate the high resistance fault and flashover fault. Cable fault tester manufacturers believe that the multiple pulse method has advanced technology, simple operation, clear waveform and fast and accurate positioning. At present, it has become the mainstream positioning method of high resistance fault and flashover fault. The multiple pulse method is an upgrade of the secondary pulse method. The method is to first measure the reflected waveform of the low-voltage pulse without breaking through the fault point of the measured cable, then impact the fault point of the cable with the high-voltage pulse to generate an arc, trigger the medium voltage pulse when the arc voltage drops to a certain value to stabilize and prolong the arc time, and then send the low-voltage pulse, Thus, the reflected waveform of the fault point is obtained. After the superposition of the two waveforms, it can also be found that the divergence point is the corresponding position of the fault point. Because the medium voltage pulse is used to stabilize and prolong the arc time, it is easier to obtain the fault point waveform than the secondary pulse method. Compared with the secondary pulse method, the triple pulse method does not need to select the synchronization time of arc burning, and the operation is also more simple. Cable fault tester is a comprehensive cable fault detection instrument. It can test the high resistance flashover fault, high and low resistance grounding, short circuit, cable disconnection, poor contact and other faults of the cable. If equipped with the acoustic method pointing instrument, it can accurately determine the position of the fault point. It is especially suitable for testing power cables and communication cables of various models and different levels of voltage. The above is the introduction of the pulse method by the cable fault tester manufacturer, hoping to provide help to those in need.
Bootcamp 487: Moving to a New Pc Part 3
Bootcamp 487: Moving to a New Pc Part 3
Keep abreast of the latest issues in computer technology with Rick MayburyThe absolute quickest and simplest method of transferring data from one PC to another is to 'slave' the old drive. Depending on your level of expertise it should only take around fifteen to twenty minutes and when you next boot up your new PC all of your old files will be accessible, ready to be used or copied to your new hard drive. It really is that easy, however, I wouldn't recommend trying it if you are uncomfortable about poking around inside your PCs or you have any doubts about your DIY skills. If so you should wait for the next two episodes of Boot Camp, which will be looking at totally non-invasive data transfer methods using removable media and cables. It's virtually impossible to get an electric shock from a desktop PC; mains voltages are safely contained inside an earthed metal box and none of the cables emerging from the box carry more than 12 volts. Nevertheless you should unplug both PCs from the mains before you open the lids, we don't want any accidents, do we? Electronic components are remarkably robust but there is a very small chance you could damage something through a static discharge from your body or clothing. Although the risk is very low it doesn't hurt to briefly touch a nearby radiator, metal water pipe or earthed metal appliance, before you open up your PC. If you are really worried you can buy anti-static wrist straps from PC Suppliers and Maplin Electronics for a few poundsStart by opening up your old PC, on most models there will be only one hard drive and it will normally have two cables plugged into the back of it, one for the power supply with four coloured wires (red, two black and yellow). The other one will be a flat 'ribbon' connector that carries the data. Gently remove both plugs, they may be a little stiff, so don't tug on the cables or you may damage them. Tuck the cables out of the way and remove the four mounting screws - two each side. Avoid touching the connectors or the circuit boards on the underside; hold it by the sides and once the screws are out slide the drive out from its 'bay'.Bootcamp ArchiveNext set the drive to 'slave' mode. On most hard drives there will be a printed label showing the positions of the 'jumpers' for Master, Slave and Cable Select (CS). The jumpers are small connectors that bridge sets of pins and they're normally located on the rear of the drive. Your old drive should be in Master mode, so you can use the current positions for orientation and reference. Use a small pair of tweezers or thin long-nosed pliers to change the jumper(s) to the Slave setting. Now you can remove the cover from your new PC and locate a spare hard drive bay. If you are very lucky you will see a spare set of data and power cables nearby, though nowadays most new PCs now use SATA type drives, which use much smaller data cables. It's not a problem, though, and most motherboards have at least one 'legacy' ATA/IDE socket that you can use. If you don't have a spare ribbon cable you can borrow the one from your old PC (see also this week's Top Tip). It's a good idea to do a dry run first and fit the old drive into it's new home. If you have to move cables out of the way do it carefully so as not to loosen any connections. One you are happy with the fitting plug in the data and power cables. Note that both plugs are 'keyed', so they only fit one way around. The plugs should seat fairly easily so do not press too hard and be especially careful not to bend the pins on the data cable socket. If you are using the data cable from your old PC don't forget to connect the other end to the IDE socket on the motherboard..Fit the drive mounting screws and give all of the nearby cables and connectors a final check to make sure you haven't dislodged anything. Refit the case lid and switch on. Windows will boot up as normal and your old drive will be recognised and automatically assigned the next available drive letter. If so you can get on with the job of transferring your data using My Computer or Windows Explorer. If the drive doesn't show up in Explorer then here's a few troubleshooting tips.Switch off, disconnect form the mains, open the lid and double-check the power and data cables. If everything looks okay put the lid back on and boot into the PC's BIOS program. (Refer to the user or motherboard manual for the correct combination of keys to press at start-up). Run the drive setup/configuration utility and check that it has been recognised. On some BIOS there may be a 'switch' to enable the IDE connector. If the drive still isn't found then there is a problem with the data or power connections or the drive is faulty.ANTI STATIC WRIST STRAP Conductive pad, attached to a strap that fits around the user's wrist, attached to a resistor and a wire that clips onto a metal radiator or water pipe, designed to safely dissipate static chargesBIOSBasic Input Output System: diagnostic and configuration program stored in a microchip memory on the PC motherboard that checks the PC hardware before the operating system is loadedCABLE SELECT Special type of data cable used by some PC manufacturers that automatically selects Master or Slave mode SATA drives use a different type of power connector that will not fit ATA/IDE drives, however, most PC power supplies have at least one spare older-style 4-pin power connector as these are still widely used by CD and DVD drives. In the unlikely event a spare connector isn't available you can use a SATA to IDE power adaptor lead. These can be obtained from PC suppliers and typically cost around £2 - £3.Don't forget, there's a full archive of previous Boot Camp Top Tips at www.pctoptips.co.uk
The 5 Best Reasons Why You Should Use a Laser Light Power Meter
The 5 Best Reasons Why You Should Use a Laser Light Power Meter
The PM100A power meters console is the analog counterpart to the digital power and energy meters PM100D. It is ideal for use as a pulse laser power meter CW, incoherent optical source power meter (general light power meter), fiber power meter and more. You can also consider one of the laser power meters such as our Pronto series, which gives you power readings of up to 10 kW every 5 seconds with 3% uncertainty.With this information in hand, you might think that you could opt for a laser power meter. The biggest problem is selecting the appropriate sensor for measuring laser light, as most other types of broadband light measure. We recommend that you select your electricity meter so that you can determine which detector meets your needs, not the other way round.This depends on the output current source and the sensitivity of the meter. You need to know how much power and energy density you have to select a sensor that is not damaged. Finding the best sensor for a particular application is not trivial, so we recommend using our Sensor Finder on our website to calculate the best sensors for the measurement conditions you have entered.For example, one of our leading sources has a maximum power of 625 x 125 fibers at 15 dBm. If your instrument uses a power level that is 10 dB higher, it is below the minimum requirement. We propose an optomechanical power meter that counts the number of photons by measuring the displacement of mirrors that push the laser beam and modulate it.After our demonstrations, calculations and analyses, we have come to the conclusion that it is possible for our novel type of power meter to measure laser power with an uncertainty of one percent (1s). This work demonstrates a novel method for measuring laser power with optomechanical systems. The prototype was tested by hanging a 25 mg mirror with an optomechanically coupled oscillator and measured the displacement of the mirror pushed by a modulated laser beam with a Michelson interferometer.The number of photons falling on the continuous wave of the laser can be measured by measuring the mirror shift caused by reflection amplitude modulated by the laser beam. In this area of equilibrium between optical power measurement and small mass measurement, metrological exchange of SI masses is enabled to calibrate optical power and SI of the optical power to calibrate the small mass measurements. Laser power measurements with an uncertainty of less than one percent (1%) are possible.In order to select one, one must know the beam point size and energy distribution; for example, a Gaussian beam has a high density, but is also flatter than other modal beams. Weaponable lasers tend to have large openings or openings that cause the laser beam to propagate, which improves its ability to maintain its intensity over long distances. With a large aperture, a rocket-killer laser beam can be aimed at the moon, and infrared spots of it can be detected from up to 15 miles away on the surface.A typical red laser pointer is about 5 milliwatts, but a good one has such a narrow beam that it hits the moon that it spreads a large part of the surface when it gets there. Observed from an airplane that is 40,000 feet in the air (assuming there are no clouds or smog), the red laser points would be brighter than a quarter of the moon. From the International Space Station it would fade to the brightest star in the night sky, Sirius.A laser pointer (or pen) is a small handheld device that emits a narrow, coherent, powerful, visible light laser beam that is used to highlight something of interest by illuminating it with a small bright spot of colored light (usually a battery or a laser diode). The small width of the laser beam and the low power of a typical laser pointer make it invisible in a clean atmosphere and only show the point where the light hits an opaque surface. In Starman, a dummy launched into space by a Tesla car from Elon Musk's company Tesla Space, the red laser pointer dimmed without anyone noticing.Green laser pointers [5] are more complex than conventional red laser pointers because laser diodes are not available in all wavelength ranges. A powerful green laser visible by scattering radiation from air molecules is visible at night and this type of pointer is used by astronomers to point out stars and constellations. Laser pointers can be purchased online, and powerful high-performance pointers are also commercially available.A second concern arose in 2010, when four researchers from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) found that commercially manufactured green laser pointers emit harmful infrared radiation. Laser pointers generate a colliding infrared beam, which is converted into green light by a special crystal. Laser intensity and distance are higher than that of an energy-rich ordinary light source, which propagates its emissions at a wide angle.We present a small power meter to measure the radiation pressure of a high-power laser. A beam of light of 5 arcminutes width from the surface of the moon has a beam of lux (compared to 130,000 lux from the sun). In comparison, the Moon illuminates the Earth's surface with lux illumination, which means that our laser is too weak to be seen from Earth, but when you are on the Moon, the laser light is weaker than the moonlight above us on Earth.The incident laser power is determined by interferometric measurements with displacement of a mirror with a high reflectivity of 20 mm diameter mounted in the middle of a two-element spiral bend. Because the small power meter that detects radiation pressure of the incident high-powered laser interacts with the laser small, packaged and non-destructive, it is well suited to perform robust real-time power measurements with high precision in laser-based manufacturing environments.
HYC Exclusive Patented Design  Polarization Maintaining(PM) Optical Fiber Connector
HYC Exclusive Patented Design Polarization Maintaining(PM) Optical Fiber Connector
What is Polarization Maintaining(PM) fiber?Theoretically, the fiber is a circular core which should not produce birefringence, and the polarization state in such a fiber will not change during transmission. In practice, there is always some external forces or other reasons which makes the fiber uneven or curved, and will cause a small amount of birefringence. When the fiber is subject to any external interference, such as wavelength, bending of the fiber, temperature and other factors, the polarization state of light will become chaotic when transmitted in polarization-maintaining fiber. Polarization Maintaining Optical Fiber (PM Fiber) is such a specialty fiber with strong birefringence that is generated by the design of optical fiber geometry. It can effectively solve the problem of polarization state change by eliminating the effect of stress on the polarization state of incident light. If the polarization of the light incident on the fiber is aligned with one of the birefringence axes, the polarization state will remain even if the fiber is bent. This polarization maintaining feature is extremely important for some special applications that require a polarized light input.How does the polarization maintaining (PM) patch cord work?Polarization maintaining(PM) patch cord maintains the coupling alignment of two Polarization modes by precise connector keys. Compared with the traditional optical fiber patch cord, the PM optical fiber patch cord has the advantages of polarization-maintaining optical fiber transmitting polarized light signal, keeping the direction of linear polarization unchanged, improving the coherent signal-to-noise ratio, and realizing high precision measurement of physical quantity. The polarization maintaining connector is an important component of two polarization maintaining fiber coupling, which ensures that the polarization mode of two PM optical fibers maintain the original polarization state of polarized light, and maintains a high extinction ratio for transmission. This requires precise docking of the slow or fast axes of the two fibers to minimize the angle error. By aligning the polarization direction of the polarized light with one of the axes, the polarization component assigned to the other axis is small, thereby maintaining the polarization state of the transmitted light. The polarization Angle and extinction ratio reflect the degree of polarization.360 ferrule rotation adjustable Polarization Maintaining(PM) optical fiber connectorTo meet the requirements of some special applications, HYC has developed a new type of polarization maintaining connector. HYCs exclusive patented design of this polarization-maintaining connector has a 360 ferrule adjustable. During the process of assembling, the polarization axis of fiber is aligned with the connector key by rotating the ferrule until the polarization axis is aligned with the connectors keyway. Compared with the traditional fiber adjustment method, it takes a shorter time to operate, which greatly improves the assembly efficiency. The polarization maintaining angle can be controlled within 1, and the high extinction ratio is maintained above 25dB. PM fiber patch cord products have the advantages of high precision, low loss, ultra-high extinction ratio, convenient manufacturing technology, high efficiency, higher maneuverability and patent protection, etc. They are widely used in many fields such as aerospace, navigation, unmanned driving system, communication, highly sensitive interferometer, poly-deviation wavelength division multiplexer, and other fields.HYC Co.,LtdHYCis a national Hi-tech optoelectronics company engaged in R&D, manufacture and marketing of fiber optical products. Providing professional product and service for fiber connectivity,WDM, PLC splitter and high density datacom cabling. HYC products and solutions widely applied in 4G/5G, Data Center and Cloud Computing industry
Best Cable Tester& Cable Tester Software
Best Cable Tester& Cable Tester Software
This article will help you find the best cable tester for your needs.A good cable tester is more than just a cable tester. It should be able to give a sufficient overview of the cable connections and be able to identify any problems with the connection.There are many different types of cable testers and they all do the same thing.In the cable industry, there is a need to test different cables, both for the purpose of quality assurance and in order to make sure that a certain product is compatible with different types of equipment.There are several software products available for testing cable, especially as they become more common in homes and businesses. Some of them have been designed specifically for testing cables. But the problem is that most of them require you to install it on your own computer or laptop first before you can use it. Some are hard to use and require too many settings so that you have to go through many options before finding an appropriate setting.This article will guide you through some tips on installing any cable tester properly so that you can quickly get your cable tested without having to do much research. It will also point out someWe have a cable tester, a type of cable plug that is used to ensure the quality of cables. The cable tester has four prongs and is connected to the main power supply by one wire. These wires are also connected in pairs: one goes to the positive terminal and another goes to the negative terminal. When you want to connect two wires together, you need to connect them first in pairs (with positive and negative terminals) and then separately in pairs (with positive and negative terminals) as shown below:In order for you to test whether or not two cables are connected properly, you will need a cable tester socket adapter. This device looks like an ordinary socket with only one wire on it. The connection between these two wires is made with an adapter. You can find theseIn order to make sure you get the best deals on TVs, Blu-ray players, etc., you need to do some research. You might have heard about a TV review site named "BestBuy" or a "Best Buy". You might also have found yourself going there to check out the latest offers only to be disappointed when your search didn't turn up anything interesting.As you've probably come to realize, there are a lot of possibilities when it comes to finding the best deals on TVs, Blu-ray players and other gadgets. But even if it is easier than ever before, there is still so much information that you need in order for these tradesmen and women to be able to offer quality recommendations.Best cable tester ensures that cables are properly connected to all the devices.With accurate, fast and reliable cable testers, you can easily save your business money.The cable tester software is an essential tool for any cable equipment buyer. It helps to assess the quality of a cable, measuring it's resistance and voltage.Cable testers have been in use since the 50's. The need for them is now less, but they are still widely used in the market.The best cable testers can help you to test Ethernet cables, power cables, phone wires and other wired connections. They also include various other inputs and outputs from home appliances like refrigerators, washing machines and dishwashers.The best cable testers can also be used in different situations to find out whether your device is working properly or not. If your computer isn't functioning properly, you should check the cable of it first before taking any action on it immediately to make sure that there are no faulty connections or miswired devices present in the system because of which your computer won't work properly at all. On the other hand if something goes wrong with a certain deviceToday's cable tester software/hardware is very sophisticated and works in a particular niche. This makes it a perfect fit for cable testers who are looking for precise information such as the channel number, the length of the cable and the condition of the cable.While there may be other software that can do these tasks, this software provides them quite well. This is why you should consider purchasing this software to get some competitive edge in your field.
New Technology of Optical Fiber Communication
New Technology of Optical Fiber Communication
1. Concept of WDMWDM (wavelength division multiplexing) technology is a technology that transmits multiple wavelength optical signals in one optical fiber at the same time.The basic principle of optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is that the optical signals of different wavelengths are combined (multiplexed) at the transmitting end and coupled to the same optical fiber on the optical cable line for transmission, and the optical signals of combined wavelengths are separated (demultiplexed) at the receiving end for further processing, and the original signals are recovered and sent to different terminals. Therefore, this technology is called optical wavelength division multiplexing, Referred to as optical wavelength division multiplexing technology.How wide is the bandwidth of optical fiber?As shown in Fig. 7.6, there are two low loss transmission windows in the optical fiber: the wavelength is 1.31 μ m(1.25~1.35 μ m) Window, corresponding bandwidth (| Δ f|=|- Δλ c/ λ 2|, λ and Δλ Are the central wavelength and corresponding band width respectively, C is the speed of light in vacuum) is 17700 GHz; Wavelength 1.55 μ m(1.50~1.60 μ m) The corresponding bandwidth is 12500 GHz.When the two windows are combined, the total bandwidth exceeds 30thz. If the channel frequency interval is 10GHz, ideally, one fiber can accommodate 3000 channels.At present, some optical devices and technologies are not very mature, so it is difficult to realize optical frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) with dense optical channels. In this case, wavelength division multiplexing with small channel spacing in the same window is called dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM).At present, the system is an optical communication system composed of 8, 16 or more wavelengths on a pair of optical fibers (single optical fiber can also be used) in the 1550nm wavelength range, in which the spacing between each wavelength is 1.6nm, 0.8nm or less, which corresponds to the band width of 200ghz, 100GHz or narrower.WDM, DWDM and OFDM are not much different in essenceIn the past, technicians used to use WDM and DWDM to distinguish between 1310 / 1550nm simple multiplexing and 1550nm intensive multiplexing, but at present, DWDM technology is used in telecom applications.Since the multiplexing of 1310 / 1550nm exceeds the gain range of EDFA and is only used in some special occasions, WDM is often used to replace DWDM.WDM technology is of great significance for network upgrading, developing broadband services (such as CATV, HDTV and IP over WDM), fully tapping the potential of optical fiber bandwidth and realizing ultra-high speed optical fiber communication. Especially WDM and EDFA have a strong attraction to modern information network.At present, "erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) dense wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) non-zero dispersion optical fiber (NZDSF, i.e. G.655 fiber) photonic integration (PIC)" is becoming the main technical direction of long-distance high-speed optical fiber communication lines in the world.If all optical fiber transmission links in an area are upgraded to WDM transmission, we can set an optical cross connection device (OXC) for cross connection of optical signals in wavelength units or an optical add drop multiplexer (OADM) for optical uplink and downlink at the intersection (node) of these WDM links, and a new optical layer will be formed on the physical layer originally composed of optical fiber links.In this optical layer, the wavelength channels in adjacent optical fiber links can be connected to form an optical path across multiple OXC and OADM to complete end-to-end information transmission, and this optical path can be flexibly and dynamically established and released according to needs, which is the eye-catching and new generation WDM all-optical network.2. Basic form of WDM systemOptical wavelength division multiplexer and demultiplexer are the key components of WDM technology. The device that combines signals of different wavelengths and outputs them through an optical fiber is called multiplexer (also known as multiplexer).On the contrary, the device that decomposes the multi wavelength signal sent by the same transmission fiber into each wavelength and outputs it respectively is called demultiplexer (also known as demultiplexer).In principle, this device is reciprocal (bidirectional reversible), that is, as long as the output and input of the demultiplexer are used in reverse, it is a multiplexer.Therefore, the multiplexer and demultiplexer are the same (unless there are special requirements).The basic composition of WDM system mainly includes the following two forms: dual fiber unidirectional transmission and single fiber bidirectional transmission.(1) Dual fiber unidirectional transmission.Unidirectional WDM transmission means that all optical paths are transmitted in the same direction on one optical fiber at the same time.As shown in Figure 7.7, dimmed signals with different wavelengths containing various information will be sent at the transmitter λ 1, λ 2,…, λ N is combined by optical multiplexers and transmitted unidirectionally in one optical fiber.Since the signals are carried through different light wavelengths, they will not be confused with each other.At the receiving end, signals of different wavelengths are separated by optical demultiplexer to complete the task of multi-channel optical signal transmission.The principle of transmission through another optical fiber in the opposite direction is the same.(2) Single fiber bidirectional transmission. Bidirectional WDM transmission means that the optical path transmits to two different directions on one optical fiber at the same time. As shown in Figure 7.8, the wavelengths used are separated from each other to realize bidirectional full duplex communication.Several key system factors must be considered in the design and application of bidirectional WDM system:For example, in order to suppress multi-channel interference (MPI), we must pay attention to the influence of light reflection, isolation between bidirectional paths, type and value of crosstalk, power level value and mutual dependence of two-way transmission, optical monitoring channel (OSC) transmission and automatic power shutdown, and use bidirectional fiber amplifier at the same time.Therefore, the development and application of bidirectional WDM system are relatively demanding, but compared with unidirectional WDM system, bidirectional WDM system can reduce the number of optical fibers and line amplifiers.In addition, by setting an optical add drop multiplexer (OADM) or optical cross connector (OXC) in the middle, the optical signals of each wavelength can be merged and shunted, and the wavelength add / drop and route allocation can be realized. In this way, the inserted or separated signals can be reasonably arranged according to the traffic distribution of optical fiber communication lines and optical networks.3. Performance parameters of optical wavelength division multiplexerOptical wavelength division multiplexer is an important part of wavelength division multiplexing system. In order to ensure the performance of wavelength division multiplexing system, the basic requirements for wavelength division multiplexer are:• low insertion loss• high isolation• flat in band and steep out of band insertion loss• good temperature stability• multiple channels• small size, etc(1) Insertion loss insertion loss refers to the additional loss caused by the addition of optical wavelength division multiplexer / demultiplexer, which is defined as the ratio of optical power between the input and output ports of the passive device, i.e(7.1)Where Pi is the optical power sent into the input port; Po is the optical power received from the output port.(2) Crosstalk suppression system crosstalk refers to the influence degree that the signals of other channels are coupled into a channel and degrade the transmission quality of the channel. Sometimes, this degree can also be expressed by isolation. For demultiplexer(7.2)Where Pi is the wavelength λ I is the input optical power of the optical signal, and PIJ is the wavelength λ The optical signal of I is connected in series to the wavelength of λ Optical power of channel J.(3) Return loss return loss refers to the ratio of the optical power returned from the input port of the passive device to the input optical power, i.e(7.3)Where PJ is the optical power sent into the input port, and PR is the return optical power received from the same input port.(4) Reflection coefficient reflection coefficient refers to the ratio of reflected light power PR to incident light power PJ at a given port of WDM device, i.e(7.4)(5) Working wavelength range working wavelength range refers to the wavelength range in which WDM devices can work according to the specified performance requirements( λ Min to λ max)。(6) Channel width channel width refers to the wavelength interval between light sources to avoid crosstalk.(7) Polarization dependent loss (PDL) refers to the maximum change of insertion loss caused by the change of polarization state.
The Evolution of the Handheld Laser Measuring Device in China
The Evolution of the Handheld Laser Measuring Device in China
The Great Wall of China, the Taj Mahal, the Roman Colosseum and the pyramids are just some of the largest and small gauges in the world in critical buildings. The development and mastery of these tools has been crucial to the evolution of the human species. Laser pointers are also used in robotics, for example, laser guidance guides a robot into a target position using a laser beam. Green laser pointers are used for similar purposes in daylight and over long distances. Another common use of lasers in entertainment is the special effects used in laser shows. Clubs, parties and outdoor concerts often use high-power lasers as security for the spectacle. For example, construction companies use high-quality laser pointers to increase the accuracy of displaying certain distances when working on large-scale projects. In astronomy, laser pointers can be mounted on a telescope to align the telescope at certain star locations. Green laser pointers are also used by astronomers for star parties or lectures on astronomy. Laser rangefinders have built-in processing capabilities that allow them to triangulate, calculate and measure distances, as well as calculate area and volume. They are accurate enough to measure long distances and display fast measurement results, compared to traditional bands used for measurement applications. With the various functions that digital handheld meters offer, the demand for these devices via tape increases. A major factor in the growth of hand-held laser rangefinders is the growing construction sector. Noyafa is committed to scientific and technological applications of laser detection. The growing demand for digital measuring instruments for precise measurements and the resulting growing demand for hand lasers and distance meters in the construction industry is a key factor in the growth of the market for hand lasers and distance meters worldwide. Measuring tools continue to evolve with technological advances such as lasers. With the development of mass production of integrated circuits (IC), the measuring tapes have become digital. This is different from 100-foot measuring tapes, which are made of fabric and used to mark the exterior dimensions of large buildings.
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